An overview page of the Labor Occupational Health Program Tailgate Meetings That Work. There are several collections on different topics in this program such as portable ladders and vehicles & heavy equipment.
|These tailgate/toolbox talks were developed for use under California OSHA regulations. The complete set is available from the Labor Occupational Health Program at UC Berkeley. For ordering information, visit the website (www.lohp.org) The American Conference of Government Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH) has adapted these talks to apply to federal OSHA regulations. To contact ACGIH, visit its web site (www.acgih.org).
- How to Use These Materials
- How Effective Are Your Safety Meetings?
- Tips for Trainers--Getting the Crew Involved
- Injury and Illness Prevention Programs
Project Coordination Team
Labor Occupational Health Program (LOHP), School of Public Health, University of California, Berkeley
Associated General Contractors (AGC) of California
Mary Ruth Gross
Center for Labor Research and Education, Institute of Industrial Relations, University of California, Berkeley
State Building and Construction Trades Council of California, AFL-CIO
Deborah Gold, LOHP
Greg Raymond, The Cohen Group/ AGC of California
Ralph Sbragia, AGC of California
Frances Schreiberg, LOHP
Jerry Loften, Asbestos Workers Local 16
Barry Lubovitsky, State Building and Construction Trades Council of California, AFL-CIO
Iraj Pourmehraban, Cal/OSHA Consultation Service
Scott Schneider, CPWR – Center for Construction Research and Training, AFL-CIO
Charles (Dick) Steele, Kiewit Pacific
Eric Svahn, Carpenters Local 713
Health and Safety
Commission, California Department of Industrial Relations
Los Angeles County District Attorneys Office
AGC of California
University of California
In California, tailgate
safety training for workers in the construction industry has been required
for many years. Too often the requirement is ignored altogether. Sometimes
training is attempted, but it just isnt effective.
Even conscientious employers who try to set up training programs can fall victim to:
- Training on the wrong topic or at the wrong time. When a crew is pouring footings, why give them training on the hazards of paints and coatings?
- Trainers and crews who lack interest and enthusiasm. Foremen and superintendents are construction professionals, not educators. Yet they are often responsible for tailgate training. They may feel unprepared, or they may feel that the training program gets in the way of the process of construction.
In creating the training program in this book, we have tried to provide tools that the foreman, superintendent, and workers can usetools that tie training to the work actually being done, and that allow people who are not professional trainers to communicate effectively about safety. The training will raise workers awareness and invite them to become active players in keeping the job safe.
We have also tried to develop a program that links tailgate training directly to Cal/OSHA safety requirements. For each training topic included here, the foreman or superintendent is asked to inspect the site for related hazards before the training begins. Summaries of Cal/OSHA regulations are provided to guide the inspection. This process of information gathering should ensure that the material presented in the training session is specific to the particular job site. It will make the training real to the crew.
Cal/OSHA now requires each construction employer to have an effective Injury and Illness Prevention Program, with tailgate training as a key component. By following the methodology of the training program in this book, an employer is complying with both the spirit and the letter of the law. Labor and management can work together to make safety an integral part of the process of construction, not just an add-on that gets in the way.
This program is the result of three years work. We held a dozen training sessions with construction workers, foremen, safety directors, union representatives, and others in the industry, seeking to find out what makes tailgate training effective. We feel strongly that the format we developed will be of tremendous value to the construction industry and its employees.
Associated General Contractorsof California
State Building and Construction Trades
Council of California, AFL-CIO
This document includes
everything a construction industry foreman or trainer will need to hold
tailgate safety meetings on 28 important topics. Each meeting should be limited to a single topic, and will take from 20 to 30 minutes.
Choose your topic from the list in the Table of Contents. Make sure that the topic you choose
relates to the work your crew is doing (or will be doing soon).
After choosing your topic, follow these four steps:
1. Inspect the Job Site for Hazards (Using Checklist)
For each topic, there
is a Safety Walkaround Checklist. (See the Checklists section
of this book; topics appear there in alphabetical order.)
This training program is based on the idea that tailgate meetings need to address real safety problems workers currently face on the job site. Youll want to have up-to-date information about conditions on the site. So its important for you or someone else in the company to do a walkaround safety inspection. Focus on hazards related to the topic you have chosen. Use the Checklist for that topic as your guide. Each Checklist summarizes Cal/OSHA regulations related to the topic, as well as additional safety rules. Fill out the Checklist as you walk around.
Later, you will use information you have recorded on the Checklist to prepare for the safety meeting.
|Most Checklist items simply require that you make a check mark if your job site complies with the safety rule involved. Sometimes the Checklist asks you to write down specific information. (These places are marked with a small pencil like the one at the left.)
The numbers in brackets after items on the Checklist refer to Cal/OSHA standards and other applicable regulations. They are there for your convenience. Most of the standards can be found in Cal/OSHAs Construction Safety Orders. Some (with numbers over 3200) appear in Cal/OSHAs General Industry Safety Orders but apply to the construction industry as well. The Cal/OSHA Guide for the Construction Industry, included in the pocket of this binder, gives more information about many of the Construction Safety Orders. Where a number in brackets refers to a regulation from an agency other than Cal/OSHA, that fact is noted.
In each Checklist, there is also space in the right-hand column for your own notes, records of conditions that need to be corrected, etc.
For each topic, there
is also a Training Guide with a complete lesson plan. (See the Training Guides section of this book; topics appear there in alphabetical
You will need to spend from 15 to 20 minutes before the meeting becoming familiar with the Training Guide. Read it over. Make sure you understand all the terms used. If necessary, look up terms and concepts in the Glossary (found in the Reference Section at the end of this book).
|Fill in the blanks in the Training Guide. (These are marked with a small pencil like the one at the left.) Youll need information from the Checklist completed earlier, as well as from your own knowledge of the job. Adding these details to the Training Guide helps make sure that the safety meeting deals with actual conditions on your own job site.
Each Training Guide also asks you to write down any Company Rules related to your topic. In some cases, your company may have special safety rules in addition to Cal/OSHA requirements.
Next, fill in the General Safety Discussion page of the Training Guide. This final portion of the tailgate meeting will not be limited to the days topicit can deal with any safety issue of immediate concern to the company or the crew. To prepare for this part of the meeting, answer the questions on this page about hazards resulting from the work of other crews on the site, recent accidents, near misses, and any safety complaints.
Finally, think about how to begin the meeting. You need something that will spark the crews interest. You may want to talk about a recent accident related to your topic, an incident from your own life (either on or off the job), or some common myth.
Throughout each Training
Guide you will find frequent instructions directed to you as
- Make a plan
for correcting any hazards that are under your control. Assign the
work. Write down any action you took, and report on it at the next
- If any of the hazards are outside your control, report them immediately to a supervisor. The supervisor should inform the general contractor or sub-contractor involved, who should correct them. Follow up to see what action was taken, and report on it at the next safety meeting.
the trainer. They will help you stay on track. These trainer instructions always appear in italics (like this).
To begin the meeting: Tell the crew what the days topic will be. Then read aloud the
opening section in the Training Guide, adding ideas and stories from your own experience. Tell the crew where the hazard youre discussing can be found at this particular job site.
In sequence, ask the numbered discussion questions in the Training Guide (in the section headed Ask The Crew These Questions). After you ask each question, allow time for the crew to think about it, and then call on volunteers to answer. After crew members have given their answers, discuss them, and use the information following the question in the Training Guide to add any points that the crew missed.
Encourage the crew to speak. Always wait for their answers. Make sure that the crew feels what they have to say will be heard with respect. Never make fun of anyone. For ideas on how to encourage participation, see the Tips for Trainers and How to Handle Discussion Problems sections later in this book.
Be sure to leave enough time to get to the General Safety Discussion at the end of
the Training Guide youre using. This is where you can cover safety issues not related to the days topic, such as current conditions on the site, problems that were raised at past meetings, recent accidents, and complaints that have come up since the last safety meeting. Also use this time to encourage crew members to contact you at once about any safety issues or hazards they become aware of at work.
Use your companys hazard report form (or the sample Hazard Report Form provided in the Reference Section of this binder) to document any hazards that crew members report to you.
To conclude the meeting,
you may want to ask the crew for feedback. Did they understand the material?
Was it well presented? Was it helpful and relevant?
Next, have each crew member sign the Sign-Off Form on the back page of the Training Guide. This will allow you to keep good records of who has been trained, and on which topics.
At this point, you may want to assign a crew member (or members) to help with the next safety meeting. Involve this crew member in choosing the next topic, and take him or her with you when you do your next walkaround safety inspection. You might also ask the person to help lead the next meeting.
Finally, file the Safety Walkaround Checklist, the Training Guide, the Hazard Report Form, the Sign-Off Form, and any other materials you have used, according to your companys policy.
California law requires
employers to hold regular tailgate safety meetings for construction workers.
But running effective tailgate meetings can be a challenge. It takes
preparation and a real desire to involve your crew in health and safety.
Use this checklist to rate your skills as a trainer—how effective are your tailgate meetings?
- ARE YOUR SAFETY TOPICS RELEVANT? Do they relate to the work the crew is doing?
- ARE YOU WELL
PREPARED? Before each safety meeting do you:
- Inspect the job site for hazards related to your topic? (Use the Safety Walkaround Checklist.)
- Read over the material you plan to cover? (See the Training Guide for your topic.)
- Look up any terms or concepts you don't understand? (Use the Glossary.)
- Make sure you are familiar with any laws, regulations, and company rules related to the day's topic?
- Review reports
of recent accidents on the site, including "near misses"?
- DO YOU GET
THE CREW ACTIVELY INVOLVED IN THE MEETING? Do you:
- Begin with a real-life example, or with information that will capture people's interest?
- Encourage full participation by the crew throughout the meeting (while still keeping it focused on the topic)?
- Invite the crew to ask questions and make suggestions related to the topic?
- Respond to questions that you can answer, and offer to find answers you don't know?
- Allow time at the end of the meeting for questions and suggestions on any safety issue?
- Ask the crew for feedback about the meeting?
- Involve the
crew in preparing for and/or leading future safety meetings?
- DO YOU FOLLOW
UP ON EACH MEETING? Do you:
- Look into complaints, concerns, and suggestions that the crew brought up?
- Report back later to let the crew know what will be done?
- Keep good
records of each tailgate meeting and other safety matters?
- DO YOU SHOW
THAT YOU TAKE SAFETY SERIOUSLY? Do you:
- Set an excellent safety example yourself?
- Invite crew members to come to you anytime with safety problems and suggestions?
- Encourage and reward safe work practices?
Tailgate safety meetings
work best if the whole crew actively participates. Here are some ways to
encourage everyone to get involved.
- ASK QUESTIONS INSTEAD OF LECTURING. During the meeting, introduce each new point you want to make by asking the crew a question. After you ask each question, wait a short time to let people think. Then call on volunteers to answer. Use the answers as a springboard for discussion. Dont just read the answers!
- ASK ABOUT PERSONAL
EXPERIENCE. If you ask a question and no one has an answer, rephrase
the question. It may be too abstract. Try to make it more direct and
personal. Ask if someone has had any personal experience that can help
the group figure out an answer.
For example, suppose no one can answer the question, What are the health effects of
breathing asbestos? You could try to make the question more personal by asking, Have you ever known anyone who got sick from working with asbestos? What kind of illness did they have?
- LIMIT THE AMOUNT OF TIME ANY ONE PERSON CAN TALK. If a crew member is talking too much, invite someone else to speak. Do it tactfully. For example, wait until the person takes a breath, quickly say "thank you," and then move along.
- NEVER MAKE FUN OF ANYONE or put anyone down, especially for asking questions.
- DONT FAKE IT. If someone has a question and you dont know the answer, dont guess or fake an answer. Write the question down. Promise that you will get back to the person, and then make sure you do.
- STICK TO THE TOPIC. If the crew's questions and comments move too far from the topic, tell them that their concerns can be addressed later—either in private conversation or in an upcoming safety meeting. (This will also give you ideas for future meeting topics.)
Cal/OSHA requires every
employer (including those in construction) to set up an effective Injury
and Illness Prevention Program (IIPP). Tailgate safety training for workers
is an integral part of an IIPP. Below are excerpts from Construction Safety
Order §1509, which specifies IIPP requirements in the construction industry.
The chart on the next page shows what an IIPP must include.
§1509 Injury and Illness Prevention Program
(a) Every employer
shall establish, implement and maintain an effective Injury and Illness Prevention Program.
(b) Every employer shall adopt a written Code of Safe Practices which relates to the employer's operations.
(c) The Code of Safe Practices shall be posted at a conspicuous location at each job site office or be provided to each supervisory employee who shall have it readily available.
(d) Periodic meetings of supervisory employees shall be held under the direction of management for the discussion of safety problems and accidents that have occurred.
(e) Supervisory employees shall conduct "toolbox" or "tailgate" safety meetings, or equivalent, with their crews at least every 10 working days to emphasize safety.
An IIPP in the construction industry must meet all Cal/OSHA requirements for a general industry
IIPP and extra requirements specific to construction. In this chart, the top two rows show what
must be included in all IIPPs (General Industry Safety Order §3203). The shaded row at the
bottom shows added features required in construction IIPPs (Construction Safety Order §1509).