World Trade Center New Employee Orientation

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CPWR - The Center for Construction Research and Training

Summary Statement

An in-depth training program for new employees at the World Trade Center Site, covering topics such as PPE wear, hazards of the site and emergency procedures.

This program was developed by CPWR – Center for Construction Research and Training, with support from the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, in cooperation with participating Building Trades unions, site employers, the New York City Department of Design & Construction, and OSHA.

  • Site Safety Structure
  • Site Layout Map
  • Site-wide Work Rules
  • Contractor/Service-Specific Work Rules
  • Specific Site Safety Issues & Controls
  • Field Orientation
Joint Safety & Health Activities
  • Instructor Introductions
  • Joint Safety & Health Committee
  • Joint Site Inspections
  • Working Together for a Safer Job
Joint Labor/Management Environmental Safety and Health Committee
  • Purpose: To advise on ES&H issues
  • Membership:

    • Tri-chairs: NYC BCTD, BTEA, NYC DDC
    • Prime Contractor representatives – 4
    • General Contractors Association – 1
    • Site Union representatives – 6
WTC Site Map
  • Badges & Security – Entry & Exit
  • Traffic Lanes – 10 mph Maximum Speed!
  • First Aid Stations
  • Site Evacuation Routes
  • PPE zones
  • Eyewash & Showers
Emergency Telephone Number


Contractor/Agency Zone Map
  • Site Description & Project Expectations
  • Location of written safety programs
  • Compressed gas storage areas
  • Subcontractor activities
  • PPE use zones
  • Fuel depot and equipment refueling

General Site Policies

  • Site ES&H program
  • Labor-Management Partnership for Safety
  • Disciplinary Warning Policy for Safety
  • Drug & Alcohol Policy
  • Non-Discrimination Policy
  • Roles of Firefighters, Police & Construction

Safety Rules
  • Dust Control & Fire Suppression
  • Traffic Rules
  • 100% Fall Protection Above 6 feet
  • 100% PPE Compliance on Site
  • Injury & Incident Reporting
  • Exit the site CLEAN
  • Crime Scene Activities & Human Remains
  • Project SPEED LIMIT 10 MPH !
  • Stay clear of traffic lanes
  • Stay clear of areas where you don’t belong
  • Be alert for backup alarms and vehicles
  • Watch for overhead debris& collapse hazards
  • Use covered and marked walkways
  • Do not walk under live loads
Mandatory Personal Protective Equipment at Ground Zero
  • Respirators (in defined zones)
  • Hard hats
  • Safety glasses with side shields or goggles
  • Long pants, long sleeve work shirts, and coveralls
  • High Visibility Clothing/Reflective Vests
  • Steel-toed, heavy duty work shoes
Respiratory Protection Requirements
  • Debris Area or Where Debris is Moved

    • Half-face respirator with combination P100 filter/acid gas/organic vapor cartridge

  • Dusty areas within restricted zone/marina

    • Half face respirator with HEPA filter (P100, N95 or equivalent)

  • Other areas with dust or smoke

    • Dust mask (P100 or N95 or equivalent)
PPE Program
  • Hazard assessment to determine need for PPE
  • Medical Clearance for PPE Use
  • PPE selection and fitting
  • Training

    • When PPE is needed
    • What PPE is needed
    • Use and limitations of PPE
    • Care and maintenance of PPE
Reporting Incidents or Hazardous Conditions
  • Report work-related injuries and illnesses, imminent danger situations, or other incidents to your supervisor & steward
  • New or expanding fires should be immediately reported to fire department
    EMERGENCY Phone: 212-747-9193
Reportable Incidents Involving Workers
  • Work-related injuries or illnesses
  • Exposures to hazardous substances above allowable exposure limits
  • Electrical shocks or arc flashes
  • Near misses
  • Crane, rigging, or material handling accidents
  • Property/vehicle/equipment damage
  • Unplanned fires or explosions
  • Spills or releases to the environment
  • Unexpected contact or damage to utilities
  • Discovery of unknown or potentially hazardous debris, containers or other materials
Stop Work If …
  • You face unsafe conditions not previously addressed
  • You face an imminent danger situation
  • The scope of work changes from the safety briefing
  • You find bodies or body parts
  • You find unknown or potentially hazardous objects or materials
 WTC Ground Zero Hazards
  • Safety hazards
  • Chemical hazards
  • Physical hazards
  • Confined space hazards
  • Biological hazards
  • Other hazards
Safety Hazards
  • Falls from heights
  • Collapses
  • Struck by/against and caught in/between
  • Fires and Burn Hazards
Fall Protection

100% fall protection when working more than 6 feet above a lower surface

Types of Fall Protection

  • Guardrails

    • Around excavations, holes, building edges, and wherever else possible.
    • On aerial lifts, crane manbaskets, scaffolds

  • Personal fall protection systems

    • Fall arrest – stops falls
    • Fall restraint – prevents falls
Personal fall protection systems
  • Harness
  • Lanyard
  • Vertical or horizontal lifeline
  • Adequate anchorage point
  • Always inspect before use
Aerial Lifts/Crane Baskets
  • Aerial lifts (JLG, Genie, etc.)

    • Must wear harness/lanyard as fall restraint
    • Secure lanyard ONLY to approved lift anchor
    • Make sure railings, doors, chains are in place
    • Do not climb on rails or use ladders, boxes, etc.

  • Crane manbaskets

    • Must wear harness/lanyard as fall restraint
    • Secure lanyard to independent anchor on crane, NOT crane basket
Surface and Trench Collapses
  • Competent person must check excavation sites at start of each shift and as needed
  • Surface collapses

    • Comply with approved demolition plan before removing girders, large chunks of concrete, etc.

  • Trench collapses (cave-ins)

    • Have proper access and way to escape
    • Use proper protective devices
      (benching, shoring, sloping, trench boxes)
Aerial Lift and Crane Collapses/Tipovers
  • Make sure you are trained in use of model of equipment you will be working on
  • Inspect equipment at start of shift
  • Make sure surface is stable
  • Don’t exceed rated load limits
  • Don’t exceed boom extension limits
  • Watch for struck by/against accidents
  • Follow all manufacturers directions
Struck By and Caught In/Between Working Near Heavy Machinery
  • Stand clear of operating equipment and vehicles
  • Wear high visibility/reflective clothing!
  • Be alert for backup alarms on vehicles
  • Avoid entering crane swing radius
  • Use tag lines when lifting loads
  • Use spotters during lifting operations
Struck By/Against Hazards
  • Falling debris

    • Barricade off falling object hazard areas
    • Wear hard hats at all times

  • Sharp objects in debris

    • Work gloves
    • Protective clothing
Fires & Burns
  • Be alert for hot steel, hot debris and smoke
  • Fires should be immediately reported to fire department
  • Hot Work Procedures
  • Fuel & compressed gas cylinders

Fire or Emergency CALL: 212-747-9193

Storage of Compressed Gas Cylinders
  • Separate oxygen cylinders from fuel cylinders by at least 20 feet, unless protected by fire wall
  • Store acetylene cylinders upright
  • Protect against falling and high temperature
  • Protect against falling objects
  • Do not store in unvented areas
  • Cap & secure cylinders
Refueling Area Setup
  • Refuel vehicles ONLY in designated area
  • Refueling areas must be at least 50 feet from other operations and storm drains
  • Fuel storage and filling areas are marked “No Smoking or Open Flames”
  • Locate disconnect switches for refueling equipment away from refueling areas
  • Spill control and cleanup materials available
  • An ABC fire extinguisher shall be located 25-75 feet from refueling operations
Refueling Area Operations
  • Allow portable equipment time to cool down before refueling
  • Shut down spark-producing equipment
  • Dispensing nozzles must have automatic shutoff and not have “latch open” device
Portable Fuel Cans
  • NO plastic containers! Use only properly labeled and approved containers
  • Do not store in direct sunlight
  • Relieve pressure buildup away from ignition sources (hot surfaces, sparks)
Chemical Hazards
  • Chemicals brought on site
  • Chemicals possibly present in WTC debris and air
Chemicals Brought on Site

Substance Skin/Eye Contact Inhalation Ingestion
Diesel fuel X X X
Acetylene gas X X  
Greases, oils, hydraulic fluids, cutting oils X X X
Gasoline, petroleum distillates X X X

Material Safety Data Sheet Sample

MSDS Illustration

You must be trained in how to read MSDSs

Chemicals Possibly Present in WTC Debris and Air
  • Dusts

    • asbestos, crystalline silica, fiberglass dust, toxic metals (arsenic, lead, chromium)

  • Smoke

    • particulates
    • Benzene, carbon monoxide, hydrogen chloride, hydrogen sulfide, PCBs, PAHs,

  • Others:

    • exhaust from vehicles and gas-powered tools
    • Freon
Chemical Safety
  • Prevent inhalation

    • respirators

  • Prevent skin/eye contact

    • Safety glasses with side shields or goggles
    • Proper gloves and protective clothing

  • Prevent ingestion

    • NO eating, drinking, smoking, chewing tobacco except in designated areas!
Avoid Taking Home Contaminants
  • Wash Hands & Face
  • Shower After Work Where Available
  • Change into Street Clothes After Work
  • Store Street Clothes in Clean Area
  • Wash Work Clothes Separate from Family’s
Physical Hazards
  • Cold
  • Heat
  • Noise
  • Electrical hazards
  • Manual lifting
  • Can cause frostbite, hypothermia
  • Contributing factors:

    • Damp, windy, or wet weather

  • Prevention:

    • Warm, dry clothing
    • Work breaks in warm shelters
  • Can cause heat stress, heat exhaustion, heat stroke
  • Contributing factors:

    • Temperature, humidity, heavy work, continuous work,
    • Fires, hot surfaces

  • Prevention:

    • Proper type of clothing
    • Work breaks in cool area
  • Can cause hearing loss
  • Action level of 85 decibels triggers hearing conservation program

    • Noise monitoring
    • Worker protection
      • Engineering controls (quieter equipment)
      • Administrative controls (job rotation)
      • Hearing protection (ear plugs, ear muffs)
    • Hearing tests
    • Training

Electrical Hazards

  • Electrical shock and electrocution
  • Electrical burns
  • Arc flash burns
  • Arc blast effects

    • hearing loss, pressure wave

  • Falls
  • Fire
Electrical Safety
  • Watch for buried power lines. Don’t assume they are de-energized.
  • Keep all metal ladders and other conductive objects away from live circuits/power lines
  • Make sure all electrical outlets have GFCIs
  • Use only hard or extra-hard usage extension cords with 3 prongs
  • Properly maintain electrical cords & equip.
Power Tools and Equipment
  • Use only tools and equipment labeled for wet or damp areas
  • Make sure plugs have 3 prongs or are double-insulated
  • Inspect cords for exposed wires, frayed, spliced or taped cords or other damage
  • Tag defective equipment and remove from service
Equipment Maintenance Lockout/Tagout
  • Lock and tag all energy sources of equipment you will work on

    • Each person working should install own lock

  • Released stored energy
  • Before removing locks after working on equipment, notify others in area and check area
  • Make sure you are trained and know written Lockout/Tagout Program
Manual Lifting
  • Can causes back pain and injury
  • Use proper lifting techniques

    • Use lifting devices or get help for heavy loads
    • Avoid bending or twisting while lifting
    • Hold loads centered and close to the body
    • Arrange lifting tasks to keep load between knuckle height and shoulder height
    • Avoid repeated one-handed lifting
    • Rotate continuous lifting tasks

Confined Spaces

Site ES&H Plan calls for each contractor to comply with 29 CFR 1910.146 (OSHA Permit-Required Confined Space Standard) and have a plan reviewed by DDC.

Confined Space Definition

Confined Space
  • Large enough for human entry
  • Limited or restricted entry or exit
  • Not meant for human occupancy
Permit-Required Confined Space

Confined Space Hazards
  • Oxygen deficiency

    • Other gases crowd out oxygen

  • Toxic gases

    • carbon monoxide from fires & engines

  • Collapses

    • trench cave-ins, underground collapses

Confined Space Safety
  • Permits required for all confined space entry
  • Confined Space Entry Program

    • Measures to prevent unauthorized entry
    • Identification of hazards and testing
    • Safe entry and rescue procedures
    • Proper PPE, equipment for testing, rescue, etc.
    • Outside attendant(s)
    • Additional specific training of all involved personnel
Biological Hazards
  • Animal bites and insect stings

    • Report animal bites and stings to first aid station for evaluation and treatment
    • Use mosquito repellent during mosquito season
    • Report bee/wasp allergies to employer safety officer prior to working at WTC site

  • Bird droppings

    • May cause illnesses if inhaled or accidentally eaten
    • Respirators and protective clothing may be needed in nearby buildings if significant amounts are present
Other Hazards
  • Post-Traumatic Stress Disorders
  • Night work

    • Poor lighting
    • Body rhythms

  • Extended hours

    • Fatigue

  • Exhaust/Carbon Monoxide
Information on Additional Training
  • Contractor & Trade Specific Training
  • Specialty Training is Available and Training Needs Should be Communicated through Union Stewards to the Joint S&H Committee
  • New hazards may arise requiring additional training for all site workers.
 Respiratory Protection

Respirators Types of Respirators on Site
  • Half Face respirators
  • Full Face Respirators
  • Different brands
Respirators Types of Cartridge
  • P100

    • filters out toxic and nuisance particles
    • Color: Purple/Magenta

  • Acid Gas and Organic Vapor Combination Cartridge

    • Filters out vapors like benzene and solvents
    • Filters out sulfuric acid gas
    • Color: Yellow
Respirators Requirements to wear
  • Facial Hair
  • Medical evaluation/examination

    • Workers must be evaluated and obtain medical clearance to make sure that wearing a respirator will not present health risks for them individually
    • Fit Testing on brand, model, and size you will wear
    • Qualitative
    • Quantitative

  • Training
Respirators Daily Procedures
  • Inspection

    • Clean
    • Filters/Cartridges
    • Valves

  • Fit Checks

    • Positive and Negative fit checks

  • Cleaning and Storage


Negative Pressure Check

Block ends of cartridges with hands. Inhale. If mask caves in, you have a tight fit.

EVERY TIME You put it on!


Positive pressure check

Place palm over exhalation valve. Exhale gently. If mask balloons, you have tight fit.
EVERY TIME You put it on!

Respirator Limitations
  • Site respirators filter air, they do not supply air, so they are useless in an oxygen deficient atmosphere.
  • Filters can become clogged, being harder to breath through. Change regularly.
  • Acid Gas/Organic Vapor Cartridges can become saturated and useless. Cartridges should be changed according the schedule in the Contractor’s Respiratory Protection Program.
  • If the respirators doesn’t seem to fit, ask for a new brand or size and get refitted.
  • If you feel bad while wearing a respirator, ask about a new medical evaluation.
  • If you have any questions about respirators, ask for your employers’ program administrator or written program.
Trade/Contractor Specific Hazards and Work Rules

Field Orientation

Follow the instructor back to the site for a visual review of key locations