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Attempt to read property 'getID' from NULL value

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Available in English
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Available in English
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                                                                            [title:protected] => Toolbox Talk: Tower Crane Safety
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                                                                            [keywords:protected] => Tower Crane, Crane, Stability, Tipping, Lift Zone Safety, Lift, Zone, Safety, Struck by
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                                                                            [summary:protected] => The CPWR Toolbox Talk on Tower Crane Safety addresses the potential hazards of Tower Cranes and the importance of following procedure before and during Tower Crane operation. The resource includes a brief example, steps to prevent a related injury, and questions for discussion. It includes a graphic that illustrates a worker inspecting a Tower Crane before operation, which can be posted in a central location as a reminder of steps to work safely. 
Available in English and Spanish.
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                                                                                            [type:protected] => category
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                                                                                            [type:protected] => category
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                                                                            [title:protected] => Arborist being raised by crane to trim trees
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                                                                            [summary:protected] => This arborist is being raised on a boatswain's chair to access the tops of trees. This is a very dangerous practice that OSHA does not allow except under the following conditions:
 
The use of equipment to hoist employees is prohibited except where the employer demonstrates that the erection, use, and dismantling of conventional means of reaching the work area, such as a personnel hoist, ladder, stairway, aerial lift, elevating work platform, or scaffold, would be more hazardous, or is not possible because of the project's structural design or worksite conditions. Source: 1926.1431(a)
 
The American National Standards Institute has a standard specifically written for arborists (Z133-2012) that allows this use of cranes, but only after a qualified person has authorized it by determining that it is the "safest and/or only feasible method to perform the work or gain access to a tree."
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                                                                            [date_summary:protected] => July 26, 2017
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                                                                            [date_received:protected] => 07/26/17
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                                                                            [searchWordClass:protected] => 
                                                                            [searchWordPeerClass:protected] => 
                                                                            [bok_record:protected] => 
                                                                            [authors:protected] => 
                                                                            [organizations:protected] => 
                                                                            [collections:protected] => 
                                                                            [categories:protected] => Array
                                                                                (
                                                                                    [97] => Category Object
                                                                                        (
                                                                                            [languages:protected] => 
                                                                                            [bok_resources:protected] => 
                                                                                            [bok_topics:protected] => 
                                                                                            [bok_keywords:protected] => 
                                                                                            [id:protected] => 97
                                                                                            [type:protected] => category
                                                                                            [parent:protected] => 5
                                                                                            [label:protected] => Images
                                                                                            [alreadyInSave:protected] => 
                                                                                            [alreadyInValidation:protected] => 
                                                                                            [validationFailures:protected] => Array
                                                                                                (
                                                                                                )

                                                                                            [_new:BaseObject:private] => 
                                                                                            [_deleted:BaseObject:private] => 
                                                                                            [modifiedColumns:protected] => Array
                                                                                                (
                                                                                                )

                                                                                        )

                                                                                    [20] => Category Object
                                                                                        (
                                                                                            [languages:protected] => 
                                                                                            [bok_resources:protected] => 
                                                                                            [bok_topics:protected] => 
                                                                                            [bok_keywords:protected] => 
                                                                                            [id:protected] => 20
                                                                                            [type:protected] => category
                                                                                            [parent:protected] => 7
                                                                                            [label:protected] => Safety Culture
                                                                                            [alreadyInSave:protected] => 
                                                                                            [alreadyInValidation:protected] => 
                                                                                            [validationFailures:protected] => Array
                                                                                                (
                                                                                                )

                                                                                            [_new:BaseObject:private] => 
                                                                                            [_deleted:BaseObject:private] => 
                                                                                            [modifiedColumns:protected] => Array
                                                                                                (
                                                                                                )

                                                                                        )

                                                                                    [47] => Category Object
                                                                                        (
                                                                                            [languages:protected] => 
                                                                                            [bok_resources:protected] => 
                                                                                            [bok_topics:protected] => 
                                                                                            [bok_keywords:protected] => 
                                                                                            [id:protected] => 47
                                                                                            [type:protected] => category
                                                                                            [parent:protected] => 2
                                                                                            [label:protected] => Bricklayer
                                                                                            [alreadyInSave:protected] => 
                                                                                            [alreadyInValidation:protected] => 
                                                                                            [validationFailures:protected] => Array
                                                                                                (
                                                                                                )

                                                                                            [_new:BaseObject:private] => 
                                                                                            [_deleted:BaseObject:private] => 
                                                                                            [modifiedColumns:protected] => Array
                                                                                                (
                                                                                                )

                                                                                        )

                                                                                    [49] => Category Object
                                                                                        (
                                                                                            [languages:protected] => 
                                                                                            [bok_resources:protected] => 
                                                                                            [bok_topics:protected] => 
                                                                                            [bok_keywords:protected] => 
                                                                                            [id:protected] => 49
                                                                                            [type:protected] => category
                                                                                            [parent:protected] => 2
                                                                                            [label:protected] => Carpenter
                                                                                            [alreadyInSave:protected] => 
                                                                                            [alreadyInValidation:protected] => 
                                                                                            [validationFailures:protected] => Array
                                                                                                (
                                                                                                )

                                                                                            [_new:BaseObject:private] => 
                                                                                            [_deleted:BaseObject:private] => 
                                                                                            [modifiedColumns:protected] => Array
                                                                                                (
                                                                                                )

                                                                                        )

                                                                                    [50] => Category Object
                                                                                        (
                                                                                            [languages:protected] => 
                                                                                            [bok_resources:protected] => 
                                                                                            [bok_topics:protected] => 
                                                                                            [bok_keywords:protected] => 
                                                                                            [id:protected] => 50
                                                                                            [type:protected] => category
                                                                                            [parent:protected] => 2
                                                                                            [label:protected] => Carpet Layer
                                                                                            [alreadyInSave:protected] => 
                                                                                            [alreadyInValidation:protected] => 
                                                                                            [validationFailures:protected] => Array
                                                                                                (
                                                                                                )

                                                                                            [_new:BaseObject:private] => 
                                                                                            [_deleted:BaseObject:private] => 
                                                                                            [modifiedColumns:protected] => Array
                                                                                                (
                                                                                                )

                                                                                        )

                                                                                    [51] => Category Object
                                                                                        (
                                                                                            [languages:protected] => 
                                                                                            [bok_resources:protected] => 
                                                                                            [bok_topics:protected] => 
                                                                                            [bok_keywords:protected] => 
                                                                                            [id:protected] => 51
                                                                                            [type:protected] => category
                                                                                            [parent:protected] => 2
                                                                                            [label:protected] => Cement Mason
                                                                                            [alreadyInSave:protected] => 
                                                                                            [alreadyInValidation:protected] => 
                                                                                            [validationFailures:protected] => Array
                                                                                                (
                                                                                                )

                                                                                            [_new:BaseObject:private] => 
                                                                                            [_deleted:BaseObject:private] => 
                                                                                            [modifiedColumns:protected] => Array
                                                                                                (
                                                                                                )

                                                                                        )

                                                                                    [53] => Category Object
                                                                                        (
                                                                                            [languages:protected] => 
                                                                                            [bok_resources:protected] => 
                                                                                            [bok_topics:protected] => 
                                                                                            [bok_keywords:protected] => 
                                                                                            [id:protected] => 53
                                                                                            [type:protected] => category
                                                                                            [parent:protected] => 2
                                                                                            [label:protected] => Concrete Polisher
                                                                                            [alreadyInSave:protected] => 
                                                                                            [alreadyInValidation:protected] => 
                                                                                            [validationFailures:protected] => Array
                                                                                                (
                                                                                                )

                                                                                            [_new:BaseObject:private] => 
                                                                                            [_deleted:BaseObject:private] => 
                                                                                            [modifiedColumns:protected] => Array
                                                                                                (
                                                                                                )

                                                                                        )

                                                                                    [54] => Category Object
                                                                                        (
                                                                                            [languages:protected] => 
                                                                                            [bok_resources:protected] => 
                                                                                            [bok_topics:protected] => 
                                                                                            [bok_keywords:protected] => 
                                                                                            [id:protected] => 54
                                                                                            [type:protected] => category
                                                                                            [parent:protected] => 2
                                                                                            [label:protected] => Drywall Applicator Specialist
                                                                                            [alreadyInSave:protected] => 
                                                                                            [alreadyInValidation:protected] => 
                                                                                            [validationFailures:protected] => Array
                                                                                                (
                                                                                                )

                                                                                            [_new:BaseObject:private] => 
                                                                                            [_deleted:BaseObject:private] => 
                                                                                            [modifiedColumns:protected] => Array
                                                                                                (
                                                                                                )

                                                                                        )

                                                                                    [55] => Category Object
                                                                                        (
                                                                                            [languages:protected] => 
                                                                                            [bok_resources:protected] => 
                                                                                            [bok_topics:protected] => 
                                                                                            [bok_keywords:protected] => 
                                                                                            [id:protected] => 55
                                                                                            [type:protected] => category
                                                                                            [parent:protected] => 2
                                                                                            [label:protected] => Electrical Worker
                                                                                            [alreadyInSave:protected] => 
                                                                                            [alreadyInValidation:protected] => 
                                                                                            [validationFailures:protected] => Array
                                                                                                (
                                                                                                )

                                                                                            [_new:BaseObject:private] => 
                                                                                            [_deleted:BaseObject:private] => 
                                                                                            [modifiedColumns:protected] => Array
                                                                                                (
                                                                                                )

                                                                                        )

                                                                                    [56] => Category Object
                                                                                        (
                                                                                            [languages:protected] => 
                                                                                            [bok_resources:protected] => 
                                                                                            [bok_topics:protected] => 
                                                                                            [bok_keywords:protected] => 
                                                                                            [id:protected] => 56
                                                                                            [type:protected] => category
                                                                                            [parent:protected] => 2
                                                                                            [label:protected] => Elevator Constructor
                                                                                            [alreadyInSave:protected] => 
                                                                                            [alreadyInValidation:protected] => 
                                                                                            [validationFailures:protected] => Array
                                                                                                (
                                                                                                )

                                                                                            [_new:BaseObject:private] => 
                                                                                            [_deleted:BaseObject:private] => 
                                                                                            [modifiedColumns:protected] => Array
                                                                                                (
                                                                                                )

                                                                                        )

                                                                                    [57] => Category Object
                                                                                        (
                                                                                            [languages:protected] => 
                                                                                            [bok_resources:protected] => 
                                                                                            [bok_topics:protected] => 
                                                                                            [bok_keywords:protected] => 
                                                                                            [id:protected] => 57
                                                                                            [type:protected] => category
                                                                                            [parent:protected] => 2
                                                                                            [label:protected] => Flagger
                                                                                            [alreadyInSave:protected] => 
                                                                                            [alreadyInValidation:protected] => 
                                                                                            [validationFailures:protected] => Array
                                                                                                (
                                                                                                )

                                                                                            [_new:BaseObject:private] => 
                                                                                            [_deleted:BaseObject:private] => 
                                                                                            [modifiedColumns:protected] => Array
                                                                                                (
                                                                                                )

                                                                                        )

                                                                                    [60] => Category Object
                                                                                        (
                                                                                            [languages:protected] => 
                                                                                            [bok_resources:protected] => 
                                                                                            [bok_topics:protected] => 
                                                                                            [bok_keywords:protected] => 
                                                                                            [id:protected] => 60
                                                                                            [type:protected] => category
                                                                                            [parent:protected] => 2
                                                                                            [label:protected] => HVAC
                                                                                            [alreadyInSave:protected] => 
                                                                                            [alreadyInValidation:protected] => 
                                                                                            [validationFailures:protected] => Array
                                                                                                (
                                                                                                )

                                                                                            [_new:BaseObject:private] => 
                                                                                            [_deleted:BaseObject:private] => 
                                                                                            [modifiedColumns:protected] => Array
                                                                                                (
                                                                                                )

                                                                                        )

                                                                                    [64] => Category Object
                                                                                        (
                                                                                            [languages:protected] => 
                                                                                            [bok_resources:protected] => 
                                                                                            [bok_topics:protected] => 
                                                                                            [bok_keywords:protected] => 
                                                                                            [id:protected] => 64
                                                                                            [type:protected] => category
                                                                                            [parent:protected] => 2
                                                                                            [label:protected] => Laborer
                                                                                            [alreadyInSave:protected] => 
                                                                                            [alreadyInValidation:protected] => 
                                                                                            [validationFailures:protected] => Array
                                                                                                (
                                                                                                )

                                                                                            [_new:BaseObject:private] => 
                                                                                            [_deleted:BaseObject:private] => 
                                                                                            [modifiedColumns:protected] => Array
                                                                                                (
                                                                                                )

                                                                                        )

                                                                                    [65] => Category Object
                                                                                        (
                                                                                            [languages:protected] => 
                                                                                            [bok_resources:protected] => 
                                                                                            [bok_topics:protected] => 
                                                                                            [bok_keywords:protected] => 
                                                                                            [id:protected] => 65
                                                                                            [type:protected] => category
                                                                                            [parent:protected] => 2
                                                                                            [label:protected] => Landscaper
                                                                                            [alreadyInSave:protected] => 
                                                                                            [alreadyInValidation:protected] => 
                                                                                            [validationFailures:protected] => Array
                                                                                                (
                                                                                                )

                                                                                            [_new:BaseObject:private] => 
                                                                                            [_deleted:BaseObject:private] => 
                                                                                            [modifiedColumns:protected] => Array
                                                                                                (
                                                                                                )

                                                                                        )

                                                                                    [68] => Category Object
                                                                                        (
                                                                                            [languages:protected] => 
                                                                                            [bok_resources:protected] => 
                                                                                            [bok_topics:protected] => 
                                                                                            [bok_keywords:protected] => 
                                                                                            [id:protected] => 68
                                                                                            [type:protected] => category
                                                                                            [parent:protected] => 2
                                                                                            [label:protected] => Maintenance Worker
                                                                                            [alreadyInSave:protected] => 
                                                                                            [alreadyInValidation:protected] => 
                                                                                            [validationFailures:protected] => Array
                                                                                                (
                                                                                                )

                                                                                            [_new:BaseObject:private] => 
                                                                                            [_deleted:BaseObject:private] => 
                                                                                            [modifiedColumns:protected] => Array
                                                                                                (
                                                                                                )

                                                                                        )

                                                                                    [71] => Category Object
                                                                                        (
                                                                                            [languages:protected] => 
                                                                                            [bok_resources:protected] => 
                                                                                            [bok_topics:protected] => 
                                                                                            [bok_keywords:protected] => 
                                                                                            [id:protected] => 71
                                                                                            [type:protected] => category
                                                                                            [parent:protected] => 2
                                                                                            [label:protected] => Painter
                                                                                            [alreadyInSave:protected] => 
                                                                                            [alreadyInValidation:protected] => 
                                                                                            [validationFailures:protected] => Array
                                                                                                (
                                                                                                )

                                                                                            [_new:BaseObject:private] => 
                                                                                            [_deleted:BaseObject:private] => 
                                                                                            [modifiedColumns:protected] => Array
                                                                                                (
                                                                                                )

                                                                                        )

                                                                                    [75] => Category Object
                                                                                        (
                                                                                            [languages:protected] => 
                                                                                            [bok_resources:protected] => 
                                                                                            [bok_topics:protected] => 
                                                                                            [bok_keywords:protected] => 
                                                                                            [id:protected] => 75
                                                                                            [type:protected] => category
                                                                                            [parent:protected] => 2
                                                                                            [label:protected] => Plasterer
                                                                                            [alreadyInSave:protected] => 
                                                                                            [alreadyInValidation:protected] => 
                                                                                            [validationFailures:protected] => Array
                                                                                                (
                                                                                                )

                                                                                            [_new:BaseObject:private] => 
                                                                                            [_deleted:BaseObject:private] => 
                                                                                            [modifiedColumns:protected] => Array
                                                                                                (
                                                                                                )

                                                                                        )

                                                                                    [78] => Category Object
                                                                                        (
                                                                                            [languages:protected] => 
                                                                                            [bok_resources:protected] => 
                                                                                            [bok_topics:protected] => 
                                                                                            [bok_keywords:protected] => 
                                                                                            [id:protected] => 78
                                                                                            [type:protected] => category
                                                                                            [parent:protected] => 2
                                                                                            [label:protected] => Roofer/Waterproofer
                                                                                            [alreadyInSave:protected] => 
                                                                                            [alreadyInValidation:protected] => 
                                                                                            [validationFailures:protected] => Array
                                                                                                (
                                                                                                )

                                                                                            [_new:BaseObject:private] => 
                                                                                            [_deleted:BaseObject:private] => 
                                                                                            [modifiedColumns:protected] => Array
                                                                                                (
                                                                                                )

                                                                                        )

                                                                                    [79] => Category Object
                                                                                        (
                                                                                            [languages:protected] => 
                                                                                            [bok_resources:protected] => 
                                                                                            [bok_topics:protected] => 
                                                                                            [bok_keywords:protected] => 
                                                                                            [id:protected] => 79
                                                                                            [type:protected] => category
                                                                                            [parent:protected] => 2
                                                                                            [label:protected] => Scaffold Erector
                                                                                            [alreadyInSave:protected] => 
                                                                                            [alreadyInValidation:protected] => 
                                                                                            [validationFailures:protected] => Array
                                                                                                (
                                                                                                )

                                                                                            [_new:BaseObject:private] => 
                                                                                            [_deleted:BaseObject:private] => 
                                                                                            [modifiedColumns:protected] => Array
                                                                                                (
                                                                                                )

                                                                                        )

                                                                                    [80] => Category Object
                                                                                        (
                                                                                            [languages:protected] => 
                                                                                            [bok_resources:protected] => 
                                                                                            [bok_topics:protected] => 
                                                                                            [bok_keywords:protected] => 
                                                                                            [id:protected] => 80
                                                                                            [type:protected] => category
                                                                                            [parent:protected] => 2
                                                                                            [label:protected] => Sheetmetal Worker
                                                                                            [alreadyInSave:protected] => 
                                                                                            [alreadyInValidation:protected] => 
                                                                                            [validationFailures:protected] => Array
                                                                                                (
                                                                                                )

                                                                                            [_new:BaseObject:private] => 
                                                                                            [_deleted:BaseObject:private] => 
                                                                                            [modifiedColumns:protected] => Array
                                                                                                (
                                                                                                )

                                                                                        )

                                                                                    [82] => Category Object
                                                                                        (
                                                                                            [languages:protected] => 
                                                                                            [bok_resources:protected] => 
                                                                                            [bok_topics:protected] => 
                                                                                            [bok_keywords:protected] => 
                                                                                            [id:protected] => 82
                                                                                            [type:protected] => category
                                                                                            [parent:protected] => 2
                                                                                            [label:protected] => Stonemason
                                                                                            [alreadyInSave:protected] => 
                                                                                            [alreadyInValidation:protected] => 
                                                                                            [validationFailures:protected] => Array
                                                                                                (
                                                                                                )

                                                                                            [_new:BaseObject:private] => 
                                                                                            [_deleted:BaseObject:private] => 
                                                                                            [modifiedColumns:protected] => Array
                                                                                                (
                                                                                                )

                                                                                        )

                                                                                    [83] => Category Object
                                                                                        (
                                                                                            [languages:protected] => 
                                                                                            [bok_resources:protected] => 
                                                                                            [bok_topics:protected] => 
                                                                                            [bok_keywords:protected] => 
                                                                                            [id:protected] => 83
                                                                                            [type:protected] => category
                                                                                            [parent:protected] => 2
                                                                                            [label:protected] => Terrazzo Worker
                                                                                            [alreadyInSave:protected] => 
                                                                                            [alreadyInValidation:protected] => 
                                                                                            [validationFailures:protected] => Array
                                                                                                (
                                                                                                )

                                                                                            [_new:BaseObject:private] => 
                                                                                            [_deleted:BaseObject:private] => 
                                                                                            [modifiedColumns:protected] => Array
                                                                                                (
                                                                                                )

                                                                                        )

                                                                                    [84] => Category Object
                                                                                        (
                                                                                            [languages:protected] => 
                                                                                            [bok_resources:protected] => 
                                                                                            [bok_topics:protected] => 
                                                                                            [bok_keywords:protected] => 
                                                                                            [id:protected] => 84
                                                                                            [type:protected] => category
                                                                                            [parent:protected] => 2
                                                                                            [label:protected] => Tile Setter
                                                                                            [alreadyInSave:protected] => 
                                                                                            [alreadyInValidation:protected] => 
                                                                                            [validationFailures:protected] => Array
                                                                                                (
                                                                                                )

                                                                                            [_new:BaseObject:private] => 
                                                                                            [_deleted:BaseObject:private] => 
                                                                                            [modifiedColumns:protected] => Array
                                                                                                (
                                                                                                )

                                                                                        )

                                                                                    [85] => Category Object
                                                                                        (
                                                                                            [languages:protected] => 
                                                                                            [bok_resources:protected] => 
                                                                                            [bok_topics:protected] => 
                                                                                            [bok_keywords:protected] => 
                                                                                            [id:protected] => 85
                                                                                            [type:protected] => category
                                                                                            [parent:protected] => 2
                                                                                            [label:protected] => Truck Driver
                                                                                            [alreadyInSave:protected] => 
                                                                                            [alreadyInValidation:protected] => 
                                                                                            [validationFailures:protected] => Array
                                                                                                (
                                                                                                )

                                                                                            [_new:BaseObject:private] => 
                                                                                            [_deleted:BaseObject:private] => 
                                                                                            [modifiedColumns:protected] => Array
                                                                                                (
                                                                                                )

                                                                                        )

                                                                                    [87] => Category Object
                                                                                        (
                                                                                            [languages:protected] => 
                                                                                            [bok_resources:protected] => 
                                                                                            [bok_topics:protected] => 
                                                                                            [bok_keywords:protected] => 
                                                                                            [id:protected] => 87
                                                                                            [type:protected] => category
                                                                                            [parent:protected] => 3
                                                                                            [label:protected] => Commercial & Institutional
                                                                                            [alreadyInSave:protected] => 
                                                                                            [alreadyInValidation:protected] => 
                                                                                            [validationFailures:protected] => Array
                                                                                                (
                                                                                                )

                                                                                            [_new:BaseObject:private] => 
                                                                                            [_deleted:BaseObject:private] => 
                                                                                            [modifiedColumns:protected] => Array
                                                                                                (
                                                                                                )

                                                                                        )

                                                                                    [88] => Category Object
                                                                                        (
                                                                                            [languages:protected] => 
                                                                                            [bok_resources:protected] => 
                                                                                            [bok_topics:protected] => 
                                                                                            [bok_keywords:protected] => 
                                                                                            [id:protected] => 88
                                                                                            [type:protected] => category
                                                                                            [parent:protected] => 3
                                                                                            [label:protected] => Demolition
                                                                                            [alreadyInSave:protected] => 
                                                                                            [alreadyInValidation:protected] => 
                                                                                            [validationFailures:protected] => Array
                                                                                                (
                                                                                                )

                                                                                            [_new:BaseObject:private] => 
                                                                                            [_deleted:BaseObject:private] => 
                                                                                            [modifiedColumns:protected] => Array
                                                                                                (
                                                                                                )

                                                                                        )

                                                                                    [89] => Category Object
                                                                                        (
                                                                                            [languages:protected] => 
                                                                                            [bok_resources:protected] => 
                                                                                            [bok_topics:protected] => 
                                                                                            [bok_keywords:protected] => 
                                                                                            [id:protected] => 89
                                                                                            [type:protected] => category
                                                                                            [parent:protected] => 3
                                                                                            [label:protected] => Disasters
                                                                                            [alreadyInSave:protected] => 
                                                                                            [alreadyInValidation:protected] => 
                                                                                            [validationFailures:protected] => Array
                                                                                                (
                                                                                                )

                                                                                            [_new:BaseObject:private] => 
                                                                                            [_deleted:BaseObject:private] => 
                                                                                            [modifiedColumns:protected] => Array
                                                                                                (
                                                                                                )

                                                                                        )

                                                                                    [91] => Category Object
                                                                                        (
                                                                                            [languages:protected] => 
                                                                                            [bok_resources:protected] => 
                                                                                            [bok_topics:protected] => 
                                                                                            [bok_keywords:protected] => 
                                                                                            [id:protected] => 91
                                                                                            [type:protected] => category
                                                                                            [parent:protected] => 3
                                                                                            [label:protected] => Heavy & Highway
                                                                                            [alreadyInSave:protected] => 
                                                                                            [alreadyInValidation:protected] => 
                                                                                            [validationFailures:protected] => Array
                                                                                                (
                                                                                                )

                                                                                            [_new:BaseObject:private] => 
                                                                                            [_deleted:BaseObject:private] => 
                                                                                            [modifiedColumns:protected] => Array
                                                                                                (
                                                                                                )

                                                                                        )

                                                                                    [90] => Category Object
                                                                                        (
                                                                                            [languages:protected] => 
                                                                                            [bok_resources:protected] => 
                                                                                            [bok_topics:protected] => 
                                                                                            [bok_keywords:protected] => 
                                                                                            [id:protected] => 90
                                                                                            [type:protected] => category
                                                                                            [parent:protected] => 3
                                                                                            [label:protected] => Industrial
                                                                                            [alreadyInSave:protected] => 
                                                                                            [alreadyInValidation:protected] => 
                                                                                            [validationFailures:protected] => Array
                                                                                                (
                                                                                                )

                                                                                            [_new:BaseObject:private] => 
                                                                                            [_deleted:BaseObject:private] => 
                                                                                            [modifiedColumns:protected] => Array
                                                                                                (
                                                                                                )

                                                                                        )

                                                                                    [92] => Category Object
                                                                                        (
                                                                                            [languages:protected] => 
                                                                                            [bok_resources:protected] => 
                                                                                            [bok_topics:protected] => 
                                                                                            [bok_keywords:protected] => 
                                                                                            [id:protected] => 92
                                                                                            [type:protected] => category
                                                                                            [parent:protected] => 3
                                                                                            [label:protected] => LEED/Green Construction
                                                                                            [alreadyInSave:protected] => 
                                                                                            [alreadyInValidation:protected] => 
                                                                                            [validationFailures:protected] => Array
                                                                                                (
                                                                                                )

                                                                                            [_new:BaseObject:private] => 
                                                                                            [_deleted:BaseObject:private] => 
                                                                                            [modifiedColumns:protected] => Array
                                                                                                (
                                                                                                )

                                                                                        )

                                                                                    [93] => Category Object
                                                                                        (
                                                                                            [languages:protected] => 
                                                                                            [bok_resources:protected] => 
                                                                                            [bok_topics:protected] => 
                                                                                            [bok_keywords:protected] => 
                                                                                            [id:protected] => 93
                                                                                            [type:protected] => category
                                                                                            [parent:protected] => 3
                                                                                            [label:protected] => Renovations
                                                                                            [alreadyInSave:protected] => 
                                                                                            [alreadyInValidation:protected] => 
                                                                                            [validationFailures:protected] => Array
                                                                                                (
                                                                                                )

                                                                                            [_new:BaseObject:private] => 
                                                                                            [_deleted:BaseObject:private] => 
                                                                                            [modifiedColumns:protected] => Array
                                                                                                (
                                                                                                )

                                                                                        )

                                                                                    [94] => Category Object
                                                                                        (
                                                                                            [languages:protected] => 
                                                                                            [bok_resources:protected] => 
                                                                                            [bok_topics:protected] => 
                                                                                            [bok_keywords:protected] => 
                                                                                            [id:protected] => 94
                                                                                            [type:protected] => category
                                                                                            [parent:protected] => 3
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                                                    [description] => The Sheet Metal Occupational Health Institute Trust (SMOHIT) was formed in
1985 to examine the health hazards of the sheet metal industry in the U.S. and Canada through an asbestos disease screening program. This investigation updates findings concerning mortality patterns among screening program participants. A cohort of 17,345 individuals with 20 or more years in the trade and who participated in the asbestos disease screening program were followed for vital status and causes of death between 1986 and 2010. Data from the screening program included chest x-ray results, spirometry, and smoking history. Standardized Mortality Ratios (SMR) by cause were generated using U.S. death rates and Cox proportional hazards models were used to investigate predictors of death due to lung cancer, mesothelioma, and COPD. A significantly reduced SMR of 0.83 (95% CI=0.81-0.85) was observed for all causes combined. Statistically significant excess mortality was observed for pleural cancers,mesothelioma, and asbestosis in the SMR analyses. In Cox models, which controlled for smoking, increased lung cancer risk was observed among workers with ILO scores of 0/1 (RR=1.10, 95% CI=0.86-1.39), with a strong trend for increasing lung cancer risk with increasing ILO profusion score greater than 0/0. Among workers with an ILO profusion score <
1/0, an FEV1 /FVC ratio less than 80% was associated with an increased risk for lung cancer. COPD mortality was predicted by increased interstitial markings on the chest x-ray, FVC below 70% of predicted, FEV1 below 70% of predicted, and an FEV1 /FVC ratio below 70%. The risk of death from cancers of the pleura and mesothelioma also were significantly increased among workers without radiological evidence of asbestosis or pleural abnormalities.

Conclusions Sheet metal workers are at increased risk for asbestos-related diseases. This study contributes to the literature demonstrating asbestos-related diseases among workers with largely indirect exposures and supports an increased lung cancer risk among workers with low ILO
profusion scores.
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                                                                            [summary:protected] => The Sheet Metal Occupational Health Institute Trust (SMOHIT) was formed in
1985 to examine the health hazards of the sheet metal industry in the U.S. and Canada through an asbestos disease screening program. This investigation updates findings concerning mortality patterns among screening program participants. A cohort of 17,345 individuals with 20 or more years in the trade and who participated in the asbestos disease screening program were followed for vital status and causes of death between 1986 and 2010. Data from the screening program included chest x-ray results, spirometry, and smoking history. Standardized Mortality Ratios (SMR) by cause were generated using U.S. death rates and Cox proportional hazards models were used to investigate predictors of death due to lung cancer, mesothelioma, and COPD. A significantly reduced SMR of 0.83 (95% CI=0.81-0.85) was observed for all causes combined. Statistically significant excess mortality was observed for pleural cancers,mesothelioma, and asbestosis in the SMR analyses. In Cox models, which controlled for smoking, increased lung cancer risk was observed among workers with ILO scores of 0/1 (RR=1.10, 95% CI=0.86-1.39), with a strong trend for increasing lung cancer risk with increasing ILO profusion score greater than 0/0. Among workers with an ILO profusion score <
1/0, an FEV1 /FVC ratio less than 80% was associated with an increased risk for lung cancer. COPD mortality was predicted by increased interstitial markings on the chest x-ray, FVC below 70% of predicted, FEV1 below 70% of predicted, and an FEV1 /FVC ratio below 70%. The risk of death from cancers of the pleura and mesothelioma also were significantly increased among workers without radiological evidence of asbestosis or pleural abnormalities.

Conclusions Sheet metal workers are at increased risk for asbestos-related diseases. This study contributes to the literature demonstrating asbestos-related diseases among workers with largely indirect exposures and supports an increased lung cancer risk among workers with low ILO
profusion scores.
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                                                                            [comments:protected] => We would also appreciate your posting the following information along with the excerpts (with active links, if possible):
These materials are provided with the permission of the New York Academy of Sciences (www.nyas.org).  Copies of the complete article may be ordered directly from the Academy (email to: publications@nyas.org) or through Copyright Clearance Center (www.copyright.org).  Copies of Volume 271 also are available through on-demand printing, and may be ordered directly from the Academy.
-Barbara Goldman was the permission Grantor
                                                                            [summary:protected] => Abstract of a 1976 study of lung cancer and mesothelioma in a population of union insulators in New York.
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                                                                            [summary:protected] => The Sheet Metal Occupational Health Institute Trust (SMOHIT) was formed in
1985 to examine the health hazards of the sheet metal industry in the U.S. and Canada through an asbestos disease screening program. This investigation updates findings concerning mortality patterns among screening program participants. A cohort of 17,345 individuals with 20 or more years in the trade and who participated in the asbestos disease screening program were followed for vital status and causes of death between 1986 and 2010. Data from the screening program included chest x-ray results, spirometry, and smoking history. Standardized Mortality Ratios (SMR) by cause were generated using U.S. death rates and Cox proportional hazards models were used to investigate predictors of death due to lung cancer, mesothelioma, and COPD. A significantly reduced SMR of 0.83 (95% CI=0.81-0.85) was observed for all causes combined. Statistically significant excess mortality was observed for pleural cancers,mesothelioma, and asbestosis in the SMR analyses. In Cox models, which controlled for smoking, increased lung cancer risk was observed among workers with ILO scores of 0/1 (RR=1.10, 95% CI=0.86-1.39), with a strong trend for increasing lung cancer risk with increasing ILO profusion score greater than 0/0. Among workers with an ILO profusion score <
1/0, an FEV1 /FVC ratio less than 80% was associated with an increased risk for lung cancer. COPD mortality was predicted by increased interstitial markings on the chest x-ray, FVC below 70% of predicted, FEV1 below 70% of predicted, and an FEV1 /FVC ratio below 70%. The risk of death from cancers of the pleura and mesothelioma also were significantly increased among workers without radiological evidence of asbestosis or pleural abnormalities.

Conclusions Sheet metal workers are at increased risk for asbestos-related diseases. This study contributes to the literature demonstrating asbestos-related diseases among workers with largely indirect exposures and supports an increased lung cancer risk among workers with low ILO
profusion scores.
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These materials are provided with the permission of the New York Academy of Sciences (www.nyas.org).  Copies of the complete article may be ordered directly from the Academy (email to: publications@nyas.org) or through Copyright Clearance Center (www.copyright.org).  Copies of Volume 271 also are available through on-demand printing, and may be ordered directly from the Academy.
-Barbara Goldman was the permission Grantor
                                                                            [summary:protected] => Abstract of a 1976 study of lung cancer and mesothelioma in a population of union insulators in New York.
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                                                            [summary:protected] => The Sheet Metal Occupational Health Institute Trust (SMOHIT) was formed in
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Conclusions Sheet metal workers are at increased risk for asbestos-related diseases. This study contributes to the literature demonstrating asbestos-related diseases among workers with largely indirect exposures and supports an increased lung cancer risk among workers with low ILO
profusion scores.
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© 2014, CPWR – The Center for Construction Research and Training. CPWR, the research and training arm of the Building and Construction Trades Dept., AFL-CIO, is uniquely situated to serve construction workers, contractors, practitioners, and the scientific community. This report was prepared by the authors noted. Funding for this research study was made possible by a cooperative agreement with the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, NIOSH (OH009762). The contents are solely the responsibility of the authors and do not necessarily represent the official views of NIOSH or CPWR.

RUNNING TITLE: Mortality among Sheet Metal Workers

GRANT SPONSOR: National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health

GRANT NUMBER: Cooperative Agreement Number (U60 OH009762, CFDA # 93.262)

CPWR SMALL STUDY NUMBER: 13-1-PS

Correspondence address: John M. Dement, Ph.D., CIH, Professor
Division of Occupational & Environmental Medicine, Department of Community & Family Medicine
Duke University Medical Center
2200 West Main Street, Suite 400
Durham, NC 27710
tel (919)684-8136, fax (919)286-1021, John.Dement@Duke.edu

Draft: April 23, 2014

ABSTRACT

Background

The Sheet Metal Occupational Health Institute Trust (SMOHIT) was formed in 1985 to examine the health hazards of the sheet metal industry in the U.S. and Canada through an asbestos disease screening program. This investigation updates findings concerning mortality patterns among screening program participants was undertaken and further investigates predictors of increased mortality due to lung cancer, mesothelioma, and COPD.

Methods

A cohort of 17,345 individuals with 20 or more years in the trade and who participated in the asbestos disease screening program were followed for vital status and causes of death between 1986 and 2010. Data from the screening program included chest x-ray results by ILO criteria, spirometry, and smoking history. Standardized Mortality Ratios (SMR) by cause were generated using U.S. death rates and Cox proportional hazards models were used to investigate predictors of death due to lung cancer, mesothelioma, and COPD

Results

A significantly reduced SMR of 0.83 (95% CI=0.81-0.85) was observed for all causes combined. Statistically significant excess mortality was observed for pleural cancers, mesothelioma, and asbestosis in the SMR analyses. In Cox models, which controlled for smoking, increased lung cancer risk was observed among workers with ILO scores of 0/1 (RR=1.10, 95% CI=0.86-1.39), with a strong trend for increasing lung cancer risk with increasing ILO profusion score greater than 0/0. Among workers with an ILO profusion score < 1/0, an FEV1 /FVC ratio less than 80% was associated with an increased risk for lung cancer. COPD mortality was predicted by increased interstitial markings on the chest x-ray, FVC below 70% of predicted, FEV1 below 70% of predicted, and an FEV1 /FVC ratio below 70%. The risk of death from cancers of the pleura and mesothelioma also were significantly increased among workers without radiological evidence of asbestosis or pleural abnormalities.

Conclusions

Sheet metal workers are at increased risk for asbestos-related diseases. This study contributes to the literature demonstrating asbestos-related diseases among workers with largely indirect exposures and supports an increased lung cancer risk among workers with low ILO profusion scores.

KEY WORDS: sheet metal worker, construction, trades, mortality, cancer, lung cancer

KEY FINDINGS

  • Statistically significant excess mortality was observed for pleural cancers, mesothelioma, and asbestosis among workers participating in the Sheet Metal Occupational Health Institute Trust (SMOHIT) medical screening program, diseases associated with a history of asbestos exposure.
  • After controlling for smoking, increased lung cancer risk was observed among workers with ILO profusion scores of 0/1, with a strong trend for increasing lung cancer risk with increasing ILO profusion score greater than 0/0.
  • Among workers with an ILO profusion score < 1/0, an FEV1 /FVC ratio less than 80% was associated with an increased risk for lung cancer.
  • COPD risk was predicted by increased interstitial markings on the chest x-ray, FVC below 70% of predicted, FEV1 below 70% of predicted, and an FEV1 /FVC ratio below 70%.
  • The risk of cancers of the pleura and mesothelioma also were significantly increased among workers without radiological evidence of asbestosis or pleural abnormalities.

BACKGROUND

Numerous studies have documented the health effects of occupational exposure to asbestos [Becklake ,1976; Nicholson et al., 1982; Selikoff et al., 1978; IARC, 2009; American Thoracic Society, 2004]. Based on the results of studies undertaken in the 1980s [Zoloth and Michaels, 1985; Selikoff and Lilis, 1991], the Sheet Metal Workers International Association (SMWIA) and the Sheet Metal and Air Conditioning National Association formed The Sheet Metal Occupational Health Institute Trust (SMOHIT) to examine the health impact of asbestos exposure in the sheet metal industry. This investigation updates prior reports on findings concerning mortality patterns among screening program participants, and further investigates predictors of increased mortality due to lung cancer, mesothelioma, and COPD.

Sheet metal work involves fabrication or installation of metal products, such as ventilation systems, metal roofing, and metal facades, as well as large-scale production of metal products, such as refrigerators and air conditioners. Sheet metal workers are primarily employed in the construction industry but have also worked in the railroad industry and shipyards, as well as in specialized sheet metal production shops. The craft of sheet metal work handled asbestoscontaining materials through the use of gaskets, but at the same time for many years sheet metal workers in construction were exposed to asbestos while working in close proximity to insulation workers applying asbestos containing materials for fireproofing and insulation, by working on or around beams that had been previously fireproofed with asbestos, and by renovating asbestosinsulated metal ventilation systems [Williams et al., 2007]. Very high levels of airborne asbestos fibers were measured during spray application of asbestos before 1973 [Paik et al., 1973], when this application method was banned.

Prior analyses have examined the prevalence of asbestos-related diseases among this cohort of sheet metal workers [Welch et al., 1991; Welch et al., 1994; Welch et al., 2007]. Welch and colleagues [2007] reported that among 18,211 individuals 10.4% had radiographic findings consistent with asbestosis and 21.7% had pleural scarring; the prevalence of asbestos-related radiographic change increased with years worked and with any shipyard work. In a study of mortality in this same cohort [Dement et al., 2009] statistically significant excess mortality was observed for pleural cancers, mesothelioma, and asbestosis. Standardized mortality ratios for both lung cancer and COPD increased consistently and strongly with increasing ILO profusion score. Here we report an extended follow-up of this same group of workers.

MATERIALS AND METHODS

Cohort Definition

We have previously presented mortality results for this cohort with follow-up through 2004 [Dement et al., 2009]. The current analyses extended the mortality follow-up of this cohort through 2010 and readers are referred to the prior publication for details of the cohort and follow-up methods. Briefly, individuals who were members of the Sheet Metal Workers International Union for 20 years or more as of January 1, 1986 were invited to participate in a medical examination program provided by the Sheet Metal Occupational Health Institute Trust (SMOHIT). Previous reports on this population describe the methods in more detail and present the prevalence of asbestos-related disease on chest radiographs [Welch et al., 1991; Welch et al., 1994; Welch et al., 2007]. Components of the screening program included: 1) completion of an occupational and medical questionnaire, 2) a limited physical examination (blood pressure determination, examination of the heart and lungs, and examination for digit clubbing), 3) spirometry, performed according to American Thoracic Society (ATS) guidelines [American Thoracic Society, 1987], and 4) PA and lateral chest radiograph, interpreted using the International Labour Office (ILO) classification for pneumoconiosis [International Labour Office, 1980]. Each chest x-ray was classified by one reader who was an A-reader, a B-reader, or a physician with proficiency in the use of the ILO classification but who was neither an A nor a B reader [Welch et al., 2007]. For the current analyses percent predicted FVC and FEV1/FVC ratio were calculated based on the prediction equations of Hankinson et al. [1999].)

The current study cohort included 17,345 individuals who were screened for asbestos related disease by chest x-ray at 62 sites nationwide, between 1986 and 2004. We excluded 1582 workers without sufficient demographic data vital status determination.

Two sources of information were used to obtain vital status and cause of death data: 1) records in the Sheet Metal National Pension Fund (SMNPF), and 2) the National Death Index (NDI). Records of the SMNPF were searched and members covered by this plan and those receiving pension benefits or still actively contributing toward their pension as of December 31, 2010 were considered alive. Workers with unknown vital status by match with the SMNPF and workers identified as deceased were followed to identify additional deaths and causes of deaths through December 31, 2010 using the NDI Plus system [Bilgrad, 1995], maintained by the National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS). Record linkage with the NDI was accomplished using probabilistic scores assigned by the NDI and recommended cut-off scores by class for records without a perfect match [Horm, 1996; NCHS, 2013]. We assumed that workers not identified as deceased by the SMNPF or the NDI were still alive as of December 31, 2010 as the NDI provides virtually complete ascertainment of deaths among men and among employed women [Boyle and Decouflė, 1990; Stampfer et al., 1984].

The study was conducted in accord with the recommendations of the Helsinki Declaration (World Medical Association 1975) and was approved by the IRB of CPWR. Each participant signed an informed consent to permit this use of data collected in the examinations.

Cohort Mortality Analyses

The Life Table Analysis System (LTAS.Net Version 3.0.3) developed by the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) [Steenland et al., 1990; Robinson et al., 2006] was utilized to compute cause-specific Standardized Mortality Ratios (SMRs), comparing the mortality experience of the cohort to that of the U.S. national population for 119 causes of death, were calculated adjusting for age, race, sex, and calendar year. The chest x-ray date was selected as the starting point for person-years accumulation for each cohort member and person-years accumulated until death or the study cut-off date of December 31, 2010. SMRs were calculated as the ratio of observed to expected deaths and 95% confidence intervals for SMRs were computed assuming that the observed number of deaths in the cohort is a Poisson random variable. The NIOSH LTAS uses the Byar approximation when the number of cases is six or more and the exact Poisson confidence interval when the number of cases was fewer than five [Rothman and Boise, 1979; NIOSH, 2011]

In addition to overall results for the entire cohort, we investigated mortality for selected causes by time since entry into the sheet metal trade, ILO parenchymal profusion category, and presence or absence of pleural changes. Parenchymal profusion categories were group into four categories as was done by Cullen et al. [2005]. A pleural abnormality was defined as bilateral pleural thickening or plaques, with or without calcification [Cullen et al., 2005]. .

Multivariate Modeling of Lung Cancer, Mesothelioma, and COPD Mortality Predictors

Within the overall cohort, further analyses were undertaken to examine the association between chest x-ray readings, spirometry, work history, and smoking and mortality due to lung cancer, mesothelioma, and COPD. Analyses of the relationship between chest film changes and lung cancer mortality were restricted to Caucasian males with 20 or more years of work in the sheet metal trade and having data on other covariates considered in the models. Females and other race groups were excluded from these analyses due to small numbers. In the main analyses, only workers having spirometry meeting ATS criteria for repeatability between maneuvers were included. Other investigators have suggested that exclusion of workers not meeting reproducibility criteria could introduce bias through exclusion of workers with accelerated loss of lung function [Eisen et al., 1984]. To investigate this issue, we conducted additional sensitivity analyses to determine effects of eliminating workers with spirometry not meeting ATS criteria.

Stratified Cox proportional hazards models were used to obtain lung cancer, mesothelioma, and COPD relative risks and 95 percent confidence intervals. The time axis in these models was the time from the initial screening examination to death due to diseases being studied or the last date that the worker was known alive. Stratified Cox models were fit with strata defined by smoking status at examination (never, past, and current) and covariates considered in the baseline models for each disease included pack-years of smoking (0, 1-19, 20-39, or ≥ 40 pack-years), age at start of follow-up (<50, 50-54, 55-59, 60-64, 65-69, 70-74, or ≥ 75 years), time since last work in the sheet metal trade (<5, 5-9, or ≥ 10 years), years of sheet metal work (20-24, 25-29, 30-34, or ≥ 35 years). Age, pack-years, and years of sheet metal work were modeled as grouped linear variables, constructed by assigning ordinal scores to categories based on category median values, and fitted as continuous variables in a manner similar to the study by Cullen et al. [2005]. Asbestos related chest radiographic predictors (presence of pleural abnormalities, and ILO parenchymal profusion category) and spirometry classifications for percent predicted FVC, percent predicted FEV1, and FEV1/FVC ratio (≥80, 70-79, 60-69, and <60) were investigated in the models as categorical variables and tests for trends across covariate category were performed by entering the covariate in the model as a grouped linear variable [Rothman and Greenland, 1998]. Pleural abnormalities were defined as bilateral pleural thickening or plaques, with or without calcification [Cullen et al., 2005].

After assessing the magnitude of the effect of each single variable on outcome, covariates that were significant in a univariate models (likelihood ratio p-values <0.1) were considered candidate variables for inclusion in multivariate models for each disease. Covariates were retained in the final models if statistically significant based on their Wald Type 3 chi-square or if their inclusion in the multivariate models changed the parameter estimates for pleural changes, parenchymal changes, or spirometry more than 10 percent. We restricted our analyses of spirometry predictors of lung cancer mortality to a sub-cohort with spirometry and with an ILO profusion score <1/0. For analyses of mesothelioma risk, cases included mesotheliomas (ICD- 10) and pleural cancers (ICD-9) and parenchymal profusion was dichotomized into <1/0 and ≥ 1/0 due to small numbers in higher profusion categories. Analyses of COPD risks were restricted to the sub-cohort with spirometry and parenchymal profusion was dichotomized into <1/0 and ≥ 1/0 due to small numbers in higher profusion categories.

Cox proportional hazards models were fit using PROC PHREG in SAS Version 9.3 [SAS, 2011]. The EXACT method of handing ties in PROC PHREG was used and the assumption of proportional hazards over the follow-up period was assessed with time-dependent covariates (the product of log-transformed time and the factor of interest). The ASSESS option for testing the proportional hazard assumption available in SAS Version 9.3 also was used for this purpose.

RESULTS

There were 6,636 deaths as of December 31, 2010 among the 17,345 workers in the cohort (Table I). The cohort was almost entirely male and Caucasian with a mean age of 57.4 years at intake exam. Twenty-six percent of the cohort had never smoke cigarettes, and 25.4% were still smoking at the time of their intake exam. Radiographic parenchymal changes (profusion > 1/0) were observed in 10.4% of workers and 21.7% had radiographic pleural changes. There were 808 deaths from lung cancer, 85 deaths from mesothelioma with an additional 11 deaths coded to malignant neoplasm of the pleura, and 461 deaths from COPD.

Standardized mortality ratio analyses showed a significant deficit for all causes of death (Table II). The SMR for malignant neoplasm of the trachea, bronchus, and lung was 1.03 which was not significantly elevated. The SMR for mesothelioma and for malignant neoplasms of the pleura were both significantly elevated. The SMR was significantly decreased for a number of causes of death, including heart disease and diseases of the respiratory system, with the exception of a significantly elevated SMR of 11.74 for asbestosis.

Table III displays mortality for selected causes of death by time since entry into the sheet metal trade, a variable that reflects both duration of exposure and latency. The SMR for lung cancer did not increase with time since entry into the trade. The vast majority of deaths from asbestosis, mesothelioma and malignant neoplasm of the pleura occurred after 40 years from first exposure. Table IV displays mortality by increasing amount of parenchymal disease on chest x-ray. The SMRs for lung cancer and asbestosis increased significantly with increasing profusion of parenchymal abnormalities. Table V shows that deaths from asbestosis were significantly higher among workers with pleural changes, but that for the other conditions pleural changes were not associated with a higher SMR.

Tables VI-IX present results of the Cox models for lung cancer, mesothelioma, and COPD. The relative risk for lung cancer death increased significantly as the profusion category on chest x-ray increased, and also increased with, age, smoking, years in sheet metal trade, and years since last sheet metal trade work at exam. A test for linear trend for lung cancer risk by profusion category was highly significant (P<0.001). There is no significant relationship between lung cancer deaths and the presence or absence of pleural abnormalities after parenchymal changes, smoking and other covariates were entered into the model. Among workers with an ILO profusion score < 1/0, an FEV1 /FVC ratio less than 80% was associated with an increased risk for lung cancer and the relative risk increased as the ratio decreased; there was no such relationship with FVC or FEV1.

Parenchymal profusion changes ≥1/0 and pleural changes were significantly associated with increased risk of mesothelioma mortality (Table VIII). Table IX death from COPD was predicted by increased interstitial markings on the chest x-ray, FVC below 70% of predicted, FEV1 below 70% predicted, and an FEV1 /FVC ratio below 70%. Age, smoking, years in the sheet metal trade, and years since last sheet metal trade work at exam were also predictive of COPD mortality.

DISCUSSION

Sheet metal workers who participated in this nationwide screening program had a reduced SMR overall compared to the US population, consistent with a healthy survivor effect. No overall increase in lung cancer mortality was observed among this cohort when compared to the US population; however, SMR analyses revealed excess mortality for mesothelioma, malignant neoplasm of the pleura, and asbestosis. Additionally, the SMR analyses demonstrated significant excess risk for lung cancer and COPD among workers with parenchymal changes ≥ 1/0 in profusion. The SMR was significantly elevated for pleural cancers, mesothelioma, and asbestosis among workers who did not have parenchymal changes. Cox proportional hazards models controlling for smoking confirmed the excess risk of lung cancer among workers with a profusion score ≥ 1/0 and provided compelling evidence for excess lung cancer risk among workers with parenchymal profusion scores <1/0 on the ILO scale.

In addition to smoking and abnormal pulmonary function, which are known risk factors for COPD mortality, both increased interstitial markings on chest x-ray and years in the sheet metal trade were also predictive of death from COPD. These findings suggest a relationship between asbestos exposure and death from COPD. Previous research has shown that asbestos exposure is associated with obstructive disease on lung function testing [ATS, 2004, Dement, et al., 2010]. Exposure to dust, fumes, gases, and vapors is now recognized as a cause of COPD, and of mortality from COPD among construction workers [Bergdahl, 2006]; asbestos is an important component of the dust exposure.

It is well accepted that workers with exposure to asbestos sufficient to cause radiographic changes consistent with clinical asbestosis are at extremely high risk of lung cancer [Coutts et al., 1987; Berry, 1981; Roggli, 1990; Cookson et al., 1985; Liddell and McDonald, 1980; Huuskonen, 1978; Finkelstein et al., 1981; Reid et al., 2005, Reid 2006; Oksa et al., 1997; Karjalainen et al., 1999; Markowitz et al., 2013]. Consistent with the current study, increased lung cancer risk also has been observed among workers without radiological evidence of asbestosis [Markowitz, et al., 2013; Reid, 2006; Wilkinson et al., 1995; Finkelstein, 2010; Anttila et al. 1993; Cullen et al., 2005]. Cullen et al. [2005] conducted a follow-up study of 4060 men with heavy asbestos exposure who participated in a β-carotene and retinol efficiency trial. Parenchymal changes on radiograph were associated with progressively increasing lung cancer risk and workers with a parenchymal profusion of 0/1 were found to have a lung cancer relative risk of 1.48 (0.99-2.22) compared to workers without parenchymal changes. Additionally, the risk of lung cancer increased steadily by duration of heavy asbestos exposure among workers without chest x-ray evidence of asbestosis. Reid reported similar findings in a study of former workers and residents of the Wittenoom mine, finding that both radiographic asbestosis and asbestos exposure were significantly associated with an increased risk of lung cancer, and there was an increased risk of lung cancer reported specifically in those without asbestosis. The most recent study to report on this issue comes from an updated analysis of the North American insulator cohort [Markowitz et al., 2013]. The authors reported that asbestos exposure without radiographic evidence of asbestosis in non-smokers raise the risk of lung cancer by 3.6 fold, and that asbestosis further doubled the lung cancer mortality risk.

Although prior research had found a relationship between the presence of pleural plaque and lung cancer mortality [Loomis et al., 1989; Hillerdal, 1994; Karjalainen et al., 1999; Cullen et al., 2005; Ameile et al, 2011] our study did not find an excess lung cancer risk among workers with pleural changes after adjustment for other model covariates including duration of sheet metal trade work, smoking, presence of parenchymal changes, and time since last sheet metal work at exam. Our failure to find an independent effect of pleural changes on the risk of lung cancer is most likely due to the nature of our cohort, consisting of older workers with 20 or more years of sheet metal work. The prevalence of pleural changes increased markedly with age in our cohort with a low of 9.5% among workers less than 55 years of age to 43.8% among workers older than 70 years. A logistic model (not shown) found both age and duration of sheet metal work to be strong predictors of pleural changes (p<0.001) thus control for both age and years of sheet metal work in our Cox lung cancer models diminished the effects of pleural changes. The presence of pleural plaques may serve as a marker for a higher cumulative asbestos exposure, thus our inability to detect a pleural effect may be due to the requirement that workers have 20 or more years in the sheet metal trade for entry into our cohort, thereby diminishing availability of a reference group with low cumulative asbestos exposure.

One limitation of this study is that the radiologic interpretation and the classification of smoking status were determined at the time of the clinical exam, which could have preceded the date of death by more than a decade. It is possible that some of the workers who were categorized as without asbestosis could have developed parenchymal disease in the interim period. Prior analysis within this same cohort found that only 5% had progression from a normal chest x-ray to one classified as 1/0 or higher over a mean of 9 years [Welch et al., 2007], so misclassification of asbestosis is unlikely to explain the results.

The current study provides additional evidence that workers who experienced largely intermittent and indirect exposure to asbestos are at increased risk of asbestos-related diseases and at risk for COPD. The risk of lung cancer risks increased sharply with parenchymal profusion score; however, the study provided compelling evidence for increased risk among workers without radiographic asbestosis. The risk of cancers of the pleura and mesothelioma also were significantly increased among workers without radiological evidence of asbestosis or pleural abnormalities. Our study has several strengths including a large population with chest xray data classified by ILO criteria, and smoking histories on each member of the cohort. Nonetheless, our study is limited by a strong healthy survivor effect and an inability to address risks for workers who worked less than 20 years. While our analyses controlled for smoking, it is impossible to entirely exclude a contribution by other unmeasured risk factors such as welding fumes or other occupational lung carcinogens. However, confounding by these unmeasured exposures is unlikely to explain the steep and consistent patterns observed by profusion score.

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

The National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health supported this study through a cooperative agreement with the Center for Construction Research and Training and the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (Cooperative Agreement Number OH009762). We express our appreciation to the Sheet Metal Workers International Association and Sheet Metal Occupational Health Institute Trust who provided the data for this project and assisted with cohort follow-up. Opinions expressed are those of the authors and do not necessarily represent the official views of CPWR or NIOSH.

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TABLES

Table I: Sheet Metal Cohort Demographics and Vital Status
Characteristic Total
Cohort
Lung
Cancer
Deaths
Number of Workers  17,345 808 
Total Deaths, December 31, 2010  6,636 --- 
Percent Male  99.8%  100% 
Percent Caucasian  99.2%  99.4 
Age at Intake Exam (Mean, (SD))  57.4 (8.7)  61.2 (7.7) 
Smoking Status at Intake Exam (No. (%))1    
___ Never Smoked  26.0%  6.6% 
___ Past Smoker  48.6%  42.7% 
___ Current Smoker  25.4%  50.7% 
Smoking Pack-Years for Ever Smoked (Mean, (SD))  32.3 (22.4)  44.3 (24.4) 
Years of Sheet Metal Trade Work (Mean, (SD))  31.9 (7.2)  33.5 (7.7) 
Prevalence of Radiographic Parenchymal Changes2 10.4%  19.7% 
Prevalence of Radiographic Pleural Changes3 21.7%  26.1% 
1 24 workers missing smoking data
2 ILO profusion of small irregular shadows in the lung parenchyma >= category 1/ 0
3 Any notations of positive findings in sections 3A-D of the NIOSH ILO coding form

 

Table II: Sheet Metal Worker Overall Mortality
Cause of Death  Obs.  Exp.  SMR  95% CI
Lower
95% CI
Upper
All Causes   6636 7972.54 0.83** 0.81 0.85
All Cancers  2224 2221.73 0.98 0.94 1.02
__MN buccal & pharynx  31 38.33 0.81 0.55 1.15
____MN lip 1 0.45 2.23 0.06 12.45
____MN tongue 6 8.92 0.67 0.25 1.46
____MN other buccal  12 9.77 1.23 0.63 2.14
____MN pharynx  12 19.19 0.63 0.32 1.09
__MN digestive & peritoneum  475 540.23 0.88** 0.80 0.96
____MN esophagus  60 73.81 0.81 0.62 1.05
____MN stomach  51 51.82 0.98 0.73 1.29
____MN intestine  139 184.96 0.75** 0.63 0.89
____MN rectum 28 37.04 0.76 0.50 1.09
____MN biliary, liver, gall bladder  58 68.52 0.85 0.64 1.09
____MN pancreas  131 117.79 1.11 0.93 1.32
____MN peritoneum, other & unspecified sites  8 6.29 1.27 0.55 2.51
__MN respiratory  839 812.78 1.03 0.96 1.10
____MN larynx 15 23.21 0.65 0.36 1.07
____MN trachea, bronchus, lung  808 784.86 1.03 0.96 1.10
____MN pleura  11 1.48 7.42** 3.70 13.27
____MN other respiratory  5 3.23 1.55 0.50 3.62
__MN breast   5 3.07 1.63 0.53 3.80
__MN female genital organs  0 0.20 0.00 0.00 18.28
__MN male genital organs  179 225.30 0.79** 0.68 0.92
__MN urinary  110 132.48 0.83 0.68 1.00
____MN kidney  49 60.02 0.82 0.60 1.08
____MN bladder & other urinary site  61 72.46 0.84 0.64 1.08
__MN other & unspecified sites   350 291.14 1.20** 1.08 1.33
____MN bone  2 3.38 0.59 0.07 2.14
____MN melanoma  30 37.20 0.81 0.54 1.15
____MN other skin  14 13.22 1.06 0.58 1.78
____MN mesothelioma  85 11.58 7.34** 5.86 9.08
____MN connective tissues  7 11.57 0.60 0.24 1.25
____MN brain & other nervous  48 48.47 0.99 0.73 1.31
____MN eye  1 1.02 0.98 0.02 5.45
____MN thyroid  3 4.34 0.69 0.14 2.02
____MN other & unspecified sites  160 160.35 1.00 0.85 1.17
__MN lymphatic & hematopoietic   235 228.19 1.03 0.90 1.17
____Hodgkin's disease  5 4.21 1.19 0.39 2.77
____Non-Hodgkin's lymphoma  97 92.40 1.05 0.85 1.28
____Multiple myeloma  43 42.73 1.01 0.73 1.36
____Leukemia  90 88.86 1.01 0.81 1.24
Benign & unspecified nature neoplasms 18 27.05 0.67 0.39 1.05
Diseases blood & blood-forming organs 31 39.17 0.79 0.54 1.12
Diabetes mellitus  112 220.61 0.51** 0.42 0.61
Mental & psychiatric disorders  107 136.79 0.78** 0.64 0.95
Alcoholism  13 22.64 0.57* 0.31 0.98
Other mental disorders  94 114.15 0.82 0.67 1.01
Nervous system disorders  249 263.28 0.95 0.83 1.07
Heart diseases  1871 2486.51 0.75**  0.72 0.79
Other diseases of the circulatory system 509 645.79 0.79** 0.72 0.86
Diseases respiratory system  743 839.70 0.88** 0.82 0.95
__Acute resp. infection, except. flu, pneumonia  3 1.22 2.46 0.51 7.19
__Influenza  3 2.76 1.09 0.22 3.18
__Pneumonia  129 196.57 0.66** 0.55 0.78
__COPD  461 485.42 0.95 0.86 1.04
__Asthma  5 7.28 0.69 0.22 1.60
__Asbestosis  48 4.11 11.68** 8.61 15.48
__Silicosis  0 0.68 0.00 0.00 5.44
__Other pneumoconiosis  1 4.00 0.25 0.01 1.39
__Other respiratory diseases  93 137.67 0.68** 0.55 0.83
Diseases digestive system  194 267.43 0.73** 0.63 0.84
Diseases skin & subcutaneous  5 8.21 0.61 0.20 1.42
Diseases musculoskeletal & connective 14 23.02 0.61 0.33 1.02
Diseases genito-urinary system  109 162.66 0.67** 0.55 0.81
Symptoms & ill-defined conditions  39 59.32 0.66** 0.47 0.90
Transportation injuries  62 71.80 0.86 0.66 1.11
Falls  63 56.42 1.12 0.86 1.43
Other injury  56 75.67 0.74* 0.56 0.96
Violence  65 90.62 0.72** 0.55 0.91
Other & unspecified causes   164 206.96 0.79** 0.68 0.92
           
* Two-Sided P < 0.05
** Two-Sided P < 0.01


Table III: Sheet Metal Worker Mortality by Time since Entry into Sheet Metal Trade
Disease Category
Time Since
Trade Entry
(years)
Obs.
Exp.

SMR

95% CI
Lower
95% CI
Upper
Lung Cancer 
20 to 29 
31
28.18
1.10
0.75
1.56
30 to 39
142
144.32
0.98
0.83
1.16
40 to 49
309
307.80
1.00
0.90
1.12
 
50+ 
326
304.47
1.07
0.96
1.19
MN Pleura 
20 to 29 
1
0.08
12.15
0.31
67.71
30 to 39
1
0.32
3.10
0.08
17.25
40 to 49
6
0.62
9.73**
3.57
21.17
 
50+ 
3
0.46
6.51*
1.34
19.02
Mesothelioma
20 to 29 
1
0.13
7.54
0.19
42.02
30 to 39
7
1.09
6.43**
2.58
13.24
40 to 49
36
3.66
9.84**
6.89
13.63
 
50+ 
41
6.70
6.12**
4.39
8.31
COPD 
20 to 29 
7
11.67
0.60
0.24
1.24
30 to 39
29
53.80
0.54**
0.36
0.77
40 to 49
131
157.35
0.83**
0.70
0.99
 
50+ 
294
262.54
1.12
1.00
1.26
Asbestosis 
20 to 29 
2
0.08
24.83**
3.01
89.69
30 to 39
4
0.36
11.13**
3.03
28.50
40 to 49
11
1.19
9.23**
4.60
16.52
 
50+ 
31
2.48
12.51**
8.50
17.75
             
* Two-Sided P < 0.05
** Two-Sided P < 0.01

 

Table IV: Sheet Metal Worker Mortality by Chest X-Ray Parenchymal Category
Disease
Category 
Parenchymal
Change 
Category 
Obs. 
Exp. 
SMR 
95% CI
Lower
95% CI
Upper
Lung Cancer 
0/- to 0/1 
649
693.46
0.94
0.87
1.01
1/0 to 1/2
143
86.85
1.65
1.39
1.94
2/1 to 2/3
14
4.28
3.27
1.79
5.48
3/2 to 3/+
2
0.26
7.58
0.92
27.38
MN Pleura 
0/- to 0/1 
10
1.27
7.89
3.78
14.51
1/0 to 1/2
1
0.20
4.92
0.12
27.40
2/1 to 2/3
0
0.01
0.00
0.00
300.99
3/2 to 3/+
0
<0.01 
0.00
0.00
6087.99
Mesothelioma 
0/- to 0/1 
69
10.37
6.65
5.18
8.42
1/0 to 1/2
16
1.16
13.85
7.91
22.49
2/1 to 2/3
0
0.04
0.00
0.00
82.29
3/2 to 3/+
0
<0.01 
0.00
0.00
1050.38
COPD 
0/- to 0/1 
356
423.03
0.84
0.76
0.93
1/0 to 1/2
92
58.90
1.56
1.26
1.92
2/1 to 2/3
12
3.31
3.63
1.87
6.33
3/2 to 3/+
1
0.18
5.52
0.14
30.74
Asbestosis 
0/- to 0/1 
27
3.58
7.54
4.96
10.96
1/0 to 1/2
18
0.50
35.96
21.30
56.84
2/1 to 2/3
3
0.03
116.75
24.08
341.20
3/2 to 3/+
0
<0.01 
0.00
0.00
2446.02
             
* Two-Sided P < 0.05
** Two-Sided P < 0.01

 

Table V: Sheet Metal Worker Mortality by Chest X-Ray Pleural Category
Disease
Category
Pleural
Changes
Obs.
Exp.
SMW
95% CI
Lower
95% CI
Upper
Lung Cancer 
No
597
585.39
1.02
0.94
1.11
Yes
211
199.47
1.06
0.92
1.21
MN Pleura 
No
7
1.05
6.66**
2.68
13.73
Yes
4
0.43
9.25**
2.52
23.68
Mesothelioma
No
53
8.72
6.08**
4.55
7.95
Yes
32
2.86
11.19**
7.65
15.79
COPD 
No
287
349.36
0.82**
0.73
0.92
Yes
174
136.06
1.28**
1.10
1.48
Asbestosis 
No
21
2.94
7.15**
4.42
10.93
Yes
27
1.17
23.03**
15.17
33.51
             
* Two-Sided P < 0.05
** Two-Sided P < 0.01

 

Table VI: Cox Model Chest Radiograph Predictors of Lung Cancer Mortality1
Risk Predictor Number in
Model2
No. of
Cancer
Cases
Relative
Risk2
95% CI
Lower
>95% CI
Upper
Profusion Categories4
0/- - 0/0 
13066
526
1.00
Ref 
Ref 
0/1 
1341
78
1.10
0.86
1.39
1/0 - 1/2 
1559
131
1.48
1.22
1.80
2/1 - 2/3 
95
12
2.83
1.59
5.04
3/2 - 3/+ 
7
2
3.96
0.98
16.05
Pleural Abnormalities
Negative 
13997
635
1.00
Ref 
Ref 
Positive 
2071
114
0.91
0.74
1.11
Years Since Last Sheet Metal Trade Work at Exam
<1 
9880
366
1.00
Ref 
Ref 
1-5 
2942
189
1.33
1.09
1.62
5-10 
1884
102
1.21
0.91
1.60
>10 
1362
92
2.00
1.43
2.79
Age3 
16068
749
1.045
1.028
1.061
Smoking Pack-Years3
16068
749
1.026
1.021
1.031

Years in Sheet Metal Trade3

16068
749
1.026
1