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Available in English
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Available in English
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                                                                            [title:protected] => Toolbox Talk: Tower Crane Safety
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                                                                            [keywords:protected] => Tower Crane, Crane, Stability, Tipping, Lift Zone Safety, Lift, Zone, Safety, Struck by
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                                                                            [summary:protected] => The CPWR Toolbox Talk on Tower Crane Safety addresses the potential hazards of Tower Cranes and the importance of following procedure before and during Tower Crane operation. The resource includes a brief example, steps to prevent a related injury, and questions for discussion. It includes a graphic that illustrates a worker inspecting a Tower Crane before operation, which can be posted in a central location as a reminder of steps to work safely. 
Available in English and Spanish.
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                                                                                            [type:protected] => category
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                                                                                            [type:protected] => category
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The use of equipment to hoist employees is prohibited except where the employer demonstrates that the erection, use, and dismantling of conventional means of reaching the work area, such as a personnel hoist, ladder, stairway, aerial lift, elevating work platform, or scaffold, would be more hazardous, or is not possible because of the project's structural design or worksite conditions. Source: 1926.1431(a)
 
The American National Standards Institute has a standard specifically written for arborists (Z133-2012) that allows this use of cranes, but only after a qualified person has authorized it by determining that it is the "safest and/or only feasible method to perform the work or gain access to a tree."
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                                                                                    [48] => Category Object
                                                                                        (
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                                                                                            [id:protected] => 48
                                                                                            [type:protected] => category
                                                                                            [parent:protected] => 2
                                                                                            [label:protected] => Cabinetmaker
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                                                                                            [alreadyInValidation:protected] => 
                                                                                            [validationFailures:protected] => Array
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                                                                                            [_new:BaseObject:private] => 
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                                                                                    [49] => Category Object
                                                                                        (
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                                                                                            [type:protected] => category
                                                                                            [parent:protected] => 2
                                                                                            [label:protected] => Carpenter
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                                                                                            [alreadyInValidation:protected] => 
                                                                                            [validationFailures:protected] => Array
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                                                                                            [_new:BaseObject:private] => 
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                                                                                                (
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                                                                                    [50] => Category Object
                                                                                        (
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                                                                                            [bok_keywords:protected] => 
                                                                                            [id:protected] => 50
                                                                                            [type:protected] => category
                                                                                            [parent:protected] => 2
                                                                                            [label:protected] => Carpet Layer
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                                                                                            [alreadyInValidation:protected] => 
                                                                                            [validationFailures:protected] => Array
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                                                                                            [_new:BaseObject:private] => 
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                                                                                                (
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                                                                                            [bok_keywords:protected] => 
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                                                                                            [type:protected] => category
                                                                                            [parent:protected] => 2
                                                                                            [label:protected] => Cement Mason
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                                                                                            [alreadyInValidation:protected] => 
                                                                                            [validationFailures:protected] => Array
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                                                                                            [_new:BaseObject:private] => 
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                                                                                                (
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                                                                                        (
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                                                                                            [bok_keywords:protected] => 
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                                                                                            [type:protected] => category
                                                                                            [parent:protected] => 2
                                                                                            [label:protected] => Concrete Polisher
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                                                                                            [validationFailures:protected] => Array
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                                                                                            [_new:BaseObject:private] => 
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                                                                                        (
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                                                                                            [bok_keywords:protected] => 
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                                                                                            [type:protected] => category
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                                                                                            [label:protected] => Drywall Applicator Specialist
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                                                                                            [alreadyInValidation:protected] => 
                                                                                            [validationFailures:protected] => Array
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                                                                                            [_new:BaseObject:private] => 
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                                                                                        )

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                                                                                        (
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                                                                                            [bok_resources:protected] => 
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                                                                                            [bok_keywords:protected] => 
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                                                                                            [type:protected] => category
                                                                                            [parent:protected] => 2
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                                                                                            [alreadyInValidation:protected] => 
                                                                                            [validationFailures:protected] => Array
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                                                                                            [_new:BaseObject:private] => 
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                                                                                            [modifiedColumns:protected] => Array
                                                                                                (
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                                                                                        )

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                                                                                        (
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                                                                                            [bok_keywords:protected] => 
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                                                                                            [type:protected] => category
                                                                                            [parent:protected] => 2
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                                                                                            [alreadyInValidation:protected] => 
                                                                                            [validationFailures:protected] => Array
                                                                                                (
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                                                                                            [_new:BaseObject:private] => 
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                                                                                                (
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                                                                                        (
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                                                                                            [bok_keywords:protected] => 
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                                                                                            [type:protected] => category
                                                                                            [parent:protected] => 2
                                                                                            [label:protected] => Flagger
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                                                                                            [alreadyInValidation:protected] => 
                                                                                            [validationFailures:protected] => Array
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                                                                                            [_new:BaseObject:private] => 
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                                                                                            [modifiedColumns:protected] => Array
                                                                                                (
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                                                                                        )

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                                                                                        (
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                                                                                            [bok_keywords:protected] => 
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                                                                                            [type:protected] => category
                                                                                            [parent:protected] => 2
                                                                                            [label:protected] => Glazier
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                                                                                            [alreadyInValidation:protected] => 
                                                                                            [validationFailures:protected] => Array
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                                                                                            [_new:BaseObject:private] => 
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                                                                                            [modifiedColumns:protected] => Array
                                                                                                (
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                                                                                        )

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                                                                                        (
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                                                                                            [bok_keywords:protected] => 
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                                                                                            [type:protected] => category
                                                                                            [parent:protected] => 2
                                                                                            [label:protected] => Hazardous Waste Cleanup
                                                                                            [alreadyInSave:protected] => 
                                                                                            [alreadyInValidation:protected] => 
                                                                                            [validationFailures:protected] => Array
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                                                                                            [_new:BaseObject:private] => 
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                                                                                                (
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                                                                                        )

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                                                                                        (
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                                                                                            [bok_keywords:protected] => 
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                                                                                            [type:protected] => category
                                                                                            [parent:protected] => 2
                                                                                            [label:protected] => HVAC
                                                                                            [alreadyInSave:protected] => 
                                                                                            [alreadyInValidation:protected] => 
                                                                                            [validationFailures:protected] => Array
                                                                                                (
                                                                                                )

                                                                                            [_new:BaseObject:private] => 
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                                                                                            [modifiedColumns:protected] => Array
                                                                                                (
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                                                                                        (
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                                                                                            [bok_keywords:protected] => 
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                                                                                            [type:protected] => category
                                                                                            [parent:protected] => 2
                                                                                            [label:protected] => Interior Systems Carpenter
                                                                                            [alreadyInSave:protected] => 
                                                                                            [alreadyInValidation:protected] => 
                                                                                            [validationFailures:protected] => Array
                                                                                                (
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                                                                                            [_new:BaseObject:private] => 
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                                                                                                (
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                                                                                    [64] => Category Object
                                                                                        (
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                                                                                            [bok_keywords:protected] => 
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                                                                                            [type:protected] => category
                                                                                            [parent:protected] => 2
                                                                                            [label:protected] => Laborer
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                                                                                            [alreadyInValidation:protected] => 
                                                                                            [validationFailures:protected] => Array
                                                                                                (
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                                                                                                (
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                                                                                    [65] => Category Object
                                                                                        (
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                                                                                            [bok_keywords:protected] => 
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                                                                                            [type:protected] => category
                                                                                            [parent:protected] => 2
                                                                                            [label:protected] => Landscaper
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                                                                                            [alreadyInValidation:protected] => 
                                                                                            [validationFailures:protected] => Array
                                                                                                (
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                                                                                            [_new:BaseObject:private] => 
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                                                                                                (
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                                                                                    [67] => Category Object
                                                                                        (
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                                                                                            [bok_keywords:protected] => 
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                                                                                            [type:protected] => category
                                                                                            [parent:protected] => 2
                                                                                            [label:protected] => Lead Abatement Worker
                                                                                            [alreadyInSave:protected] => 
                                                                                            [alreadyInValidation:protected] => 
                                                                                            [validationFailures:protected] => Array
                                                                                                (
                                                                                                )

                                                                                            [_new:BaseObject:private] => 
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                                                                                            [modifiedColumns:protected] => Array
                                                                                                (
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                                                                                        (
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                                                                                            [bok_keywords:protected] => 
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                                                                                            [type:protected] => category
                                                                                            [parent:protected] => 2
                                                                                            [label:protected] => Maintenance Worker
                                                                                            [alreadyInSave:protected] => 
                                                                                            [alreadyInValidation:protected] => 
                                                                                            [validationFailures:protected] => Array
                                                                                                (
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                                                                                            [_new:BaseObject:private] => 
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                                                                                            [modifiedColumns:protected] => Array
                                                                                                (
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                                                                                        )

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                                                                                        (
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                                                                                            [bok_keywords:protected] => 
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                                                                                            [type:protected] => category
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                                                                                            [label:protected] => Millwright
                                                                                            [alreadyInSave:protected] => 
                                                                                            [alreadyInValidation:protected] => 
                                                                                            [validationFailures:protected] => Array
                                                                                                (
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                                                                                            [_new:BaseObject:private] => 
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                                                                                            [modifiedColumns:protected] => Array
                                                                                                (
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                                                                                        )

                                                                                    [70] => Category Object
                                                                                        (
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                                                                                            [bok_keywords:protected] => 
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                                                                                            [type:protected] => category
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                                                                                            [label:protected] => Operating Engineer
                                                                                            [alreadyInSave:protected] => 
                                                                                            [alreadyInValidation:protected] => 
                                                                                            [validationFailures:protected] => Array
                                                                                                (
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                                                                                            [_new:BaseObject:private] => 
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                                                                                            [modifiedColumns:protected] => Array
                                                                                                (
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                                                                                        )

                                                                                    [71] => Category Object
                                                                                        (
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                                                                                            [bok_keywords:protected] => 
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                                                                                            [type:protected] => category
                                                                                            [parent:protected] => 2
                                                                                            [label:protected] => Painter
                                                                                            [alreadyInSave:protected] => 
                                                                                            [alreadyInValidation:protected] => 
                                                                                            [validationFailures:protected] => Array
                                                                                                (
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                                                                                            [_new:BaseObject:private] => 
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                                                                                            [modifiedColumns:protected] => Array
                                                                                                (
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                                                                                        )

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                                                                                        (
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                                                                                            [bok_keywords:protected] => 
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                                                                                            [type:protected] => category
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                                                                                            [label:protected] => Pile Driver
                                                                                            [alreadyInSave:protected] => 
                                                                                            [alreadyInValidation:protected] => 
                                                                                            [validationFailures:protected] => Array
                                                                                                (
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                                                                                            [_new:BaseObject:private] => 
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                                                                                            [modifiedColumns:protected] => Array
                                                                                                (
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                                                                                        )

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                                                                                        (
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                                                                                            [type:protected] => category
                                                                                            [parent:protected] => 2
                                                                                            [label:protected] => Plasterer
                                                                                            [alreadyInSave:protected] => 
                                                                                            [alreadyInValidation:protected] => 
                                                                                            [validationFailures:protected] => Array
                                                                                                (
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                                                                                            [_new:BaseObject:private] => 
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                                                                                            [modifiedColumns:protected] => Array
                                                                                                (
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                                                                                        )

                                                                                    [76] => Category Object
                                                                                        (
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                                                                                            [bok_keywords:protected] => 
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                                                                                            [type:protected] => category
                                                                                            [parent:protected] => 2
                                                                                            [label:protected] => Plumber/Pipefitter
                                                                                            [alreadyInSave:protected] => 
                                                                                            [alreadyInValidation:protected] => 
                                                                                            [validationFailures:protected] => Array
                                                                                                (
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                                                                                            [_new:BaseObject:private] => 
                                                                                            [_deleted:BaseObject:private] => 
                                                                                            [modifiedColumns:protected] => Array
                                                                                                (
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                                                                                        )

                                                                                    [77] => Category Object
                                                                                        (
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                                                                                            [bok_keywords:protected] => 
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                                                                                            [type:protected] => category
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                                                                                            [label:protected] => Refractory Worker
                                                                                            [alreadyInSave:protected] => 
                                                                                            [alreadyInValidation:protected] => 
                                                                                            [validationFailures:protected] => Array
                                                                                                (
                                                                                                )

                                                                                            [_new:BaseObject:private] => 
                                                                                            [_deleted:BaseObject:private] => 
                                                                                            [modifiedColumns:protected] => Array
                                                                                                (
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                                                                                        )

                                                                                    [63] => Category Object
                                                                                        (
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                                                                                            [bok_keywords:protected] => 
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                                                                                            [type:protected] => category
                                                                                            [parent:protected] => 2
                                                                                            [label:protected] => Reinforcing Ironworker
                                                                                            [alreadyInSave:protected] => 
                                                                                            [alreadyInValidation:protected] => 
                                                                                            [validationFailures:protected] => Array
                                                                                                (
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                                                                                            [_new:BaseObject:private] => 
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                                                                                            [modifiedColumns:protected] => Array
                                                                                                (
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                                                                                        )

                                                                                    [78] => Category Object
                                                                                        (
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                                                                                            [bok_keywords:protected] => 
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                                                                                            [type:protected] => category
                                                                                            [parent:protected] => 2
                                                                                            [label:protected] => Roofer/Waterproofer
                                                                                            [alreadyInSave:protected] => 
                                                                                            [alreadyInValidation:protected] => 
                                                                                            [validationFailures:protected] => Array
                                                                                                (
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                                                                                            [_new:BaseObject:private] => 
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                                                                                            [modifiedColumns:protected] => Array
                                                                                                (
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                                                                                        )

                                                                                    [79] => Category Object
                                                                                        (
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                                                                                            [bok_keywords:protected] => 
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                                                                                            [type:protected] => category
                                                                                            [parent:protected] => 2
                                                                                            [label:protected] => Scaffold Erector
                                                                                            [alreadyInSave:protected] => 
                                                                                            [alreadyInValidation:protected] => 
                                                                                            [validationFailures:protected] => Array
                                                                                                (
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                                                                                            [_new:BaseObject:private] => 
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                                                                                                (
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                                                                                        )

                                                                                    [80] => Category Object
                                                                                        (
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                                                                                            [bok_keywords:protected] => 
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                                                                                            [type:protected] => category
                                                                                            [parent:protected] => 2
                                                                                            [label:protected] => Sheetmetal Worker
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                                                                                            [alreadyInValidation:protected] => 
                                                                                            [validationFailures:protected] => Array
                                                                                                (
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                                                                                            [_new:BaseObject:private] => 
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                                                                                            [modifiedColumns:protected] => Array
                                                                                                (
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                                                                                        )

                                                                                    [81] => Category Object
                                                                                        (
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                                                                                            [bok_keywords:protected] => 
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                                                                                            [type:protected] => category
                                                                                            [parent:protected] => 2
                                                                                            [label:protected] => Sprinkler Fitter
                                                                                            [alreadyInSave:protected] => 
                                                                                            [alreadyInValidation:protected] => 
                                                                                            [validationFailures:protected] => Array
                                                                                                (
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                                                                                            [_new:BaseObject:private] => 
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                                                                                            [modifiedColumns:protected] => Array
                                                                                                (
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                                                                                        )

                                                                                    [82] => Category Object
                                                                                        (
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                                                                                            [bok_keywords:protected] => 
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                                                                                            [type:protected] => category
                                                                                            [parent:protected] => 2
                                                                                            [label:protected] => Stonemason
                                                                                            [alreadyInSave:protected] => 
                                                                                            [alreadyInValidation:protected] => 
                                                                                            [validationFailures:protected] => Array
                                                                                                (
                                                                                                )

                                                                                            [_new:BaseObject:private] => 
                                                                                            [_deleted:BaseObject:private] => 
                                                                                            [modifiedColumns:protected] => Array
                                                                                                (
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                                                                                        )

                                                                                    [62] => Category Object
                                                                                        (
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                                                                                            [bok_keywords:protected] => 
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                                                                                            [type:protected] => category
                                                                                            [parent:protected] => 2
                                                                                            [label:protected] => Structural Ironworker
                                                                                            [alreadyInSave:protected] => 
                                                                                            [alreadyInValidation:protected] => 
                                                                                            [validationFailures:protected] => Array
                                                                                                (
                                                                                                )

                                                                                            [_new:BaseObject:private] => 
                                                                                            [_deleted:BaseObject:private] => 
                                                                                            [modifiedColumns:protected] => Array
                                                                                                (
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                                                                                        )

                                                                                    [83] => Category Object
                                                                                        (
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                                                                                            [bok_resources:protected] => 
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                                                                                            [bok_keywords:protected] => 
                                                                                            [id:protected] => 83
                                                                                            [type:protected] => category
                                                                                            [parent:protected] => 2
                                                                                            [label:protected] => Terrazzo Worker
                                                                                            [alreadyInSave:protected] => 
                                                                                            [alreadyInValidation:protected] => 
                                                                                            [validationFailures:protected] => Array
                                                                                                (
                                                                                                )

                                                                                            [_new:BaseObject:private] => 
                                                                                            [_deleted:BaseObject:private] => 
                                                                                            [modifiedColumns:protected] => Array
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                                                    [preview_mode] => 
                                                    [description] => The purpose of this study is to evaluate the current understanding and use of nanotechnology applications in heavy industrial/commercial construction among union leaders, apprenticeship program staff and employers. Our specific goal was to survey representatives from a cross-section of California construction trades to determine to what extent they are aware of nanotechnology, if they have received or delivered training related to nanotechnology, if they recognize any nano-enabled products listed in the "eLCOSH Construction Nanomaterials Inventory" (eLCOSH Inventory) and their perception of potential benefits or concerns about use of nanotechnology in construction.
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                                                                            [summary:protected] => The U.S. construction industry generated $1.13 trillion in economic activity in 2005 from wages, materials, equipment rental, profits, architect/engineering fees and other expenses, such as business overhead, interest and taxes paidCPWR Chart Book.
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                                                                            [summary:protected] => If possible use a power stretcher instead of a knee kicker. Carpet installers can potentially suffer from skin infections, acute knee injuries, fluid buildup and bursitis. Installers spend a great deal of time on their knees and should use knee pads to reduce knee strain. Mini-breaks (a few seconds) can help refresh tired muscles and joints. Select knee pads that are comfortable and do not reduce circulation. Try to test knee pads for comfort and fit in kneeling and standing positions before purchasing.
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                                                                            [title:protected] => Construction Fatality Narrative: Roofer Falls 18 Feet from Wet House Roof
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                                                                            [publication_number:protected] => REPORT #: 71-178-2019
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                                                                            [summary:protected] => A 50-year-old roofer died when he fell 18 feet from a house roof.

He had 20 years of experience as a roofer and had worked for his employer’s roofing company for two years.

He was part of a three-person crew installing a metal roof on a two-story house. Shortly after 8 a.m., the crew was setting up for the day. This was their third day at the work site. The company owner had not yet arrived.
A light rain was falling. The victim, wearing a harness, climbed up a ladder and went onto the steep slope 8/12 pitch roof. He walked horizontally along the roof for about 25 feet. No one else was on the roof.

The crew supervisor was below in the yard. After a few minutes, the supervisor called to the victim, but got no answer. He went looking for him and found him unconscious lying on a concrete patio. The other roofer stayed with the victim while the supervisor called 911. Emergency responders arrived after a few minutes. The victim died while being transported by ambulance.

The medical examiner gave the cause of death as “multiple blunt force injuries” resulting from a fall from the roof.

The state investigator found that the victim’s rope grab lifeline was attached to a roof anchor, but he was not tied off to it when he slid on the wet roof underlayment and fell off the roof edge. 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The company was a subcontractor hired to install siding on a newly constructed apartment building. The work was being performed using pump-jack scaffolding. 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The victim was climbing an extension ladder that was set up on stone pavers to access the roof. While climbing the ladder, the victim fell to the ground below when the base of the ladder slipped out and then the ladder fell to the left. 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This collection of resources from the NIOSH Mining Program includes web apps to promote recognition of hazards and occupational injury risks in mining, infographics, publications, and other tools. 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CPWR, formerly known as The Center to Protect Workers’ Rights, is a 501(c)(3) nonprofit research and training institution. Created by the Building and Construction Trades Department, AFL-CIO, CPWR serves as the research arm of the BCTD. Since the inception of its research agenda in 1990, CPWR has grown into a worldwide provider of safety and health information covering all aspects of the construction industry. CPWR launched eLCOSH in 2000, and the Spanish-language version of the site in 2001. CPWR also created, and continues to build, Construction Solutions - www.cpwrConstructionSolutions.org - a free, online database of construction hazards and ways to prevent, eliminate, or reduce them. 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Our specific goal was to survey representatives from a cross-section of California construction trades to determine to what extent they are aware of nanotechnology, if they have received or delivered training related to nanotechnology, if they recognize any nano-enabled products listed in the "eLCOSH Construction Nanomaterials Inventory" (eLCOSH Inventory) and their perception of potential benefits or concerns about use of nanotechnology in construction. 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TABLE OF CONTENTS

ABSTRACT

    A. Introduction
    B. Methodology
      B1. Recruitment
      B2. Online Survey
      B3. Key Informant Questionnaires
      B4. Demographics
    C. Results/Data Summary
      C1. Online Survey Results
      C2. Key Informant Follow-Up Interview Results
      C3. Key Informant Interviews with Government Agency Staff
    D. Discussion
      D1. An Unexpected Response
      D2.The Extent of Awareness
      D3. Concerns About Risk
      D4. Nanotechnology Training
      D5. California Government Agencies
    E. Recommendations
    F.Conclusion
    G. Appendices

Abstract:

Purpose: The purpose of this study is to evaluate the current understanding and use of nanotechnology applications in heavy industrial/commercial construction among union leaders, apprenticeship program staff and employers. Our specific goal was to survey representatives from a cross-section of California construction trades to determine to what extent they are aware of nanotechnology, if they have received or delivered training related to nanotechnology, if they recognize any nano-enabled products listed in the "eLCOSH Construction Nanomaterials Inventory" (eLCOSH Inventory) and their perception of potential benefits or concerns about use of nanotechnology in construction.

This study relates to NIOSH’s NORA Construction Sector Strategic Goal #11, which covers building recognition and awareness of construction hazards and the means for controlling them by strengthening and extending the reach of quality training and education in the construction industry. Information gathered through our online survey and key informant processes specifically addresses Subgoals 11.1 (construction safety and health training needs assessment) and 11.2 (surveying current training programs about gaps in training on this topic).

Methodology:

We collected feedback from our target audience through a 31-question on-line survey and 21 follow-up key informant phone interviews with a subset of survey respondents. Our goal was to obtain 100 survey responses; we actually received 253 completed surveys to include in our evaluation. It was a priority that we obtain feedback from a cross-section of crafts. Participants were asked to identify their affiliation from a list of 25 crafts; all but one of these crafts (Pile Drivers) were represented through completed surveys. We selected 21 key informant subjects based upon one or more of the following criteria present in their survey responses: recognition of nanotechnology terms; having either received or delivered training related to nanotechnology; indicating worker or environmental safety concerns related to nano-enabled materials; on-the-job experience with nano-enabled construction materials; recognition of products from the eLCOSH Inventory. Interview length averaged 23 minutes (range: 9-46 minutes) per subject. Additionally, we conducted phone interviews with 5 individuals from 4 California government agencies; each interview took 30-60 minutes.

Key findings:

  1. Knowledge and Awareness: While there was far greater interest in participating in this study than we originally anticipated, the level of understanding—both defining key terms and how nanotechnology may pose risks to workers in the construction industry—is quite shallow. Survey respondents and key informants voiced concern about this new technology; respondents could see the potential benefits that nanotechnology could bring to construction, but their past experience with products like asbestos and silica made them question whether long-term consequences may exist. For many, this survey was their first introduction to nanotechnology, particularly as it pertains to construction. The survey itself sparked in many participants an interest to learn more.
  2. Knowledge of materials listed in eLCOSH Inventory: Reviewing the 500-plus product list generated interest and raised awareness of nanotechnology and could be a useful tool if used more broadly. However, given our small sample size, and the fact that some of the entries on the inventory were very generic, we really weren’t able to draw too many conclusions.
  3. Current status of training: Comprehensive nanotechnology training is virtually non-existent. Barely 2% of survey participants had received training and most of these were Insulators who were being trained by a product manufacturer on proper techniques for applying the product rather than understanding the nano-enabled aspects of the material. However, the majority of study participants were interested in being trained about nanotechnology and believe it would be of value to construction workers.
  4. Government agency monitoring, control, and information: There was a surge of public sector activity around nanotechnology over the last 15 years, but this seems to have slowed now that the initial wave of funding and research has run its course. Two California agencies have the potential to gather information from nanomaterial manufacturers and make that information public, however neither is doing anything with nanomaterials at this time. They have some products on a watch list, but need more data to raise those to the action phase.

Recommendations:

A strategic plan to increase awareness and improve understanding of nanotechnology and nanomaterials in the construction industry must include a combination of research, outreach, training, and stakeholder collaboration. Information gaps need to be filled; the most basic first step is to develop clear and agreed-upon definitions of the terminology related to nanotechnology. Data are needed about how nanomaterials are currently being used in construction, the exposures workers are experiencing and the subsequent risks they face of potential health effects. Collaboration with public agencies, researchers, manufacturers, trainers and end-users is essential to accomplishing these goals.

Additional steps include developing a multi-craft training curriculum that includes the use of video and utilizing the eLCOSH Inventory as both an awareness tool and a way to learn more about products currently in use.

A. INTRODUCTION

Construction has the distinction of being the "number one" industry for many health and safety hazards, including falls, electrocutions and respirable crystalline silica. Our building and construction trades unions, apprenticeship programs and employers must constantly keep pace with control strategies, standards and training for a myriad of hazards to protect workers from harm. This can be challenging, even for hazards that have been recognized and researched for decades, or, as in the case of silica, centuries. Unions are at the forefront, advocating for workers' rights and protections, engineering controls, policies and procedures, and personal protective equipment that will keep workers safe.

Over a century ago, California construction unions joined together to form the State Building and Construction Trades Council of California, AFL-CIO (SBCTC), a multi-craft association whose mission is to "improve the health, jobs, safety and economic conditions of the members of its affiliates, and all working men, women, and minors in the construction industry." SBCTC is the California affiliate of North America's Building Trades Unions (NABTU) and has collaborated with the Center for Construction Research and Training (CPWR) on the topics of noise and hearing loss prevention, silica, and ergonomics. For more than twenty years, SBCTC has developed numerous health and safety education programs with funding from the federal OSHA Susan Harwood training grant program. This work has established the SBCTC as a leader in construction health and safety, enabling us to build a network of safety trainers in California and become a trusted source for health and safety information among unions, apprenticeship programs and contractors.

We learned from CPWR and other sources that the construction industry was seeing increased use of applications of nanotechnology and nano-enabled materials. The field of nanotechnology is growing exponentially, accompanied by claims of amazing benefits, not only for society, but specifically for construction. Nanotechnology could potentially improve our building materials, promising to make them lighter, stronger, more durable, energy efficient, and engineered to provide solutions for public health hazards from sequestering air pollution to controlling bacteria in hospitals. While the spotlight has been focused on the research and development (R&D) side of nanotechnology and nano-enabled materials, what remains largely unknown are the potential downstream impacts these new materials may have on the environment and on the trades workers who must handle, cut, drill, grind, and apply them in their daily work, and eventually remove them at the end of their life-cycle.

It became clear that only a small amount of information had been gathered regarding levels of awareness, understanding and training about this emerging technology among construction stakeholders. Indeed, over the years of conducting needs assessments and offering programs on various health and safety topics, nanotechnology and nanomaterials had never surfaced within our training sphere. Anecdotally, the mention of "nanotechnology" or "engineered nanomaterials" in conversations with union reps, apprenticeship staff and contractor reps, would elicit responses ranging from a blank stare, a "what's that?", cautious trepidation about potential new regulatory standards, and awareness limited to knowledge that it exists.

With California boasting the sixth largest economy in the world, being a global hub for new technology R&D and innovative green building technologies, as well as a national leader in worker health and safety and environmental protection standards, we may expect that our construction industry would be informed about the benefits and concerns relating to nanotechnology. But, in reality, we had no organized feedback stream to indicate whether these innovations were on anyone's "radar screen" at all.

When CPWR researchers informed us that an online list already existed, the "eLCOSH Construction Nanomaterials Inventory" (eLCOSH Inventory), identifying over 500 construction products currently available on the commercial market in the U.S., we agreed to propose a small study project to survey a target population of SBCTC affiliates, our trainer network and contractors to better understand their level of nanotechnology awareness. Several questions surfaced immediately as we considered this topic:

  • To what extent is there awareness of nanotechnology applications in construction?
  • Are unions or apprenticeship programs addressing nanotechnology in their trade?
  • Are any specific concerns surfacing about use of nano-enabled materials?
  • Do union leaders and trainers recognize products in the eLCOSH Inventory?
  • Is training about nanomaterials being made available to union workers?

Our study attempted to obtain feedback on these questions using both an online survey platform that could be easily accessed by our target audience and follow-up key informant interviews with a small subset of survey respondents. We knew at the outset that the scope of our study would be small, but it is a beginning exploration that we hope will inspire future work and assist researchers and construction stakeholders by exposing potential gaps in awareness and identifying next steps needed to bridge those gaps. CPWR had made similar efforts in other parts of the nation and we saw an opportunity to build upon their work and contribute to the existing data pool.

Going into this project, we truly did not know what to expect. We assumed that response levels would likely be low, and that awareness would be limited. With the many priorities that our target population deals with every day, we did not know if they would be willing to take the time to participate in this study, or if they would perceive other health and safety issues and training needs as more important. We hoped to get 100 completed surveys and were pleasantly surprised when we actually got more than twice that number. We also found that key informant candidates were very willing to participate in interviews. We learned that simply participating in our study sparked a greater interest in nanotechnology among interviewees.

Another aim of our study was to interview representatives from key California state agencies to determine if they are currently working on any monitoring, control, regulation or educational outreach related to nanotechnology or nanomaterials. We were able to accomplish this to an extent, but it was more challenging than expected. The results of these interviews are summarized in aggregate later in this report.

This study relates to NORA Construction Sector Strategic Goal #11, which covers building recognition and awareness of construction hazards and the means for controlling them by strengthening and extending the reach of quality training and education in the construction industry. Information gathered through our online survey and key informant processes specifically addresses Subgoals 11.1 (construction safety and health training needs assessment) and 11.2 (surveying current training programs about gaps in training on this topic).

B. METHODOLOGY

Our purpose for conducting this study was to gather feedback from within the California unionized construction sector relating to nanotechnology and nanomaterials and to determine current involvement of state public agencies in monitoring nanomaterials. We would collect this information through a combination of online survey and key informant interviews. Our questioning centered around five topics:

  1. Awareness levels among union/apprenticeship staff and contractors
  2. Training
  3. Concerns about the new technology
  4. End user product recognition
  5. Public agency monitoring, research, enforcement, outreach

In regard to awareness, training, and concerns among union representatives, similar work had been done previously by CPWR through voluntary completion of written surveys. Our goal was to expand upon their work by distributing our own survey questionnaire to SBCTC affiliates, apprenticeship programs and our network of safety program participants (primarily apprenticeship instructors and contractor health and safety trainers). Our survey was disseminated through the popular online SurveyMonkey platform which, for several years, we have used successfully to obtain feedback for our health and safety training programs. Participation in the survey was completely voluntary.

The online survey method offered the most efficient means for us to reach a larger pool of study participants. Online surveying has many positive aspects such as:

  • An online survey link is easily shared electronically;
  • Participants can complete the survey from any location at their own convenience;
  • Easy to collect demographic information;
  • Results can be tracked and viewed immediately;
  • SurveyMonkey analytics can be used to compile and organize data;
  • Summary results are easily accessed/shared among the research team.

The main drawback to this type of online questionnaire is that it best lends itself to closed, multiple choice, short fill-in-the-blank questions or answer drop-down menus. Also, survey design is limited to the options available through the SurveyMonkey platform. Survey results would successfully give us a static snapshot of our target population, but we also wanted to include a process for doing more in-depth follow-up with participants who might have more detailed information to share. For this purpose, we designed a key informant interview protocol for selecting a sub-set of survey participants to be interviewed by phone.

The online survey and key informant interview processes are described in more detail in sections B2 and B3 below. The three questionnaires used for the online survey and key informant interviews are included in the Appendices (Section G) of this report. Each questionnaire was reviewed and approved for use by a CPWR Institutional Review Board (IRB) for protection of human subjects.

B1. Recruitment

Study participants were recruited from our pool of SBCTC union and trainer networks. The SBCTC has a 50-member Executive Board (E-Board), 22 affiliated local building trades councils (BTCs), over 140 local union affiliates (Locals) from 14 different crafts. Additionally, more than 125 union apprenticeship programs (JATCs) are linked to these affiliates and are on our communication listserv. Individuals who have participated in our health and safety train-thetrainer program (TOT participants) make up a second group of potential study subjects. These include many union apprenticeship instructors as well as employer representatives such as General Foremen, Superintendents, Safety Managers, Project Managers, and risk management specialists from various-sized contracting companies.

The SBCTC maintains an electronic listserv that acts as our main conduit for communications to our E-Board, BTCs, Locals and JATCs. Communications are regularly issued in the form of a Bulletin that goes directly to individual email accounts. At the beginning of June 2017, we released a Bulletin requesting that SBCTC affiliates participate in our study project and share the recruitment information with their signatory contractors. The announcement described the study as "related to new emerging technology in construction" and intentionally avoided use of the terms nanotechnology, nanoparticles, nano-enabled materials and engineered nanomaterials that were to be assessed in the survey. Mention of these terms in the recruitment process may have created some bias favoring participants with interest in, or prior knowledge of, the topic over those who might perceive it as something that doesn't apply to them. Our goal was to obtain feedback from a balanced cross-section of the target audience, not just people who already had awareness of nanotechnology.

The announcement disclosed that the study is funded entirely through a grant from the Center for Construction Research and Training (CPWR) as part of SBCTC's ongoing work to promote state-of-the-art training and the safety and health of California building trades workers. The following statements were included to inform potential participants about the study:

  • Purpose: To assess levels of awareness and use of specific new technologies within California construction unions. There are no right or wrong answers, all responses are significant.
  • Potential Benefits: Findings of this study will be shared nationally in a final report to CPWR to provide information and guidance for training and risk assessment for construction workers.

We also indicated the online platform that would be used, estimated time required to complete the survey, and that strict confidentiality protocols were in place to protect individual participant identities. A hyperlink was provided in the Bulletin that would take participants directly to the online survey.

For the TOT participant pool, we sent an invitation with a hyperlink similar to the Bulletin via email. In addition to this electronic outreach, we also made direct presentations to the E-Board, and to attendees at SBCTC trainings. We also reached out to the leaders of safety committees at three construction contractor associations by email and personal phone calls asking for their support in distributing our survey invitation to their affiliates. These associations were the Construction Employers Association (CEA), the United Contractors (UCON), and the Associated General Contractors (AGC). The CEA responded that it is their policy not to ask affiliates to take surveys from outside organizations and that they would not be able to help us recruit participants. The AGC indicated that they would be willing, but we never received confirmation that they actually distributed the information. UCON did not give a formal response, however our Project Coordinator distributed survey recruitment flyers at a silica training she presented to their safety committee.

Through June and July, the first two months the survey was open, we received 139 survey responses. At the beginning of August, we released a second SBCTC Bulletin reminding affiliates to participate in the study. In August and September we received another 179 survey responses, and one more late survey came in December before we closed the online link. Of the total 319 surveys received, 66 of them were either incomplete, blank or duplicates and did not qualify for the study. This left 253 viable surveys that are included in the study.

B2. Online Survey

The questionnaire used for the online survey included 31 questions. A blank copy of the survey is included in the Appendices. These questions followed specific topics of interest as outlined in Table 1.

TABLE 1- TOPICS COVERED IN ONLINE SURVEY  
Topic Question #
Confidentiality Agreement/Consent 1
Demographic information and work experience 2-11
Awareness of nanotechnology 12-14
Training related to nanotechnology 15-19
Benefits and concerns related to nanotechnology 20-25
Information sources and need for training 26-28
eLCOSH Inventory 29-31

CPWR shared a sample of an 11-question written survey "OPCMIA Survey—Nanotechnology in Construction April 16, 2014" they had used previously when doing similar investigation. We incorporated 10 of their 11 questions into our online survey so that direct data comparisons could be made based on the results of our study. These survey questions related to: experience in the trades; application of nanotechnology in construction; training addressing nanotechnology; benefits and concerns related to nanotechnology (Likert-type scale); concern for specific nanoparticle types. We collected additional demographic information such as:

contact information; age group; current affiliation; job title; company/organization size. We also collected additional information about training experience, recognition of nanotechnology terms, information sources, and the eLCOSH Inventory.

Upon opening the survey, respondents view an information and confidentiality agreement and must actively indicate their acknowledgement and consent by clicking a checkbox. It is here that participants learn that the study topic is nanotechnology. Only when they agree, can they move forward with the survey. Participants navigate through five sections matching the topics identified in Table 1. The first eleven questions ask for basic demographic data. At question 12, nanotechnology terms are introduced for the first time. The survey design employs skip logic to automatically navigate participants through the questionnaire based on their responses to specific questions. For example, if a respondent indicated they had never heard of any of the four terms (nanotechnology, nanoparticles, nano-enabled materials, engineered nanomaterials), skip logic advanced them directly to the Product List section, as all questions in between would be moot.

No questions required an answer; participants could skip any questions that they did not want to answer. The most complex survey question was the eLCOSH Inventory review. We were committed to testing the list to determine to what extent these products are recognized within our target audience. To our knowledge, this has not been done before and this information could be helpful for future research. In order to include a list with more than 500 entries for review, it was necessary to insert it as an image. It would have been preferable to have participants review it as a checklist; however SurveyMonkey did not have a format that would support a list of this size.

Before presenting the list, we explain how the list is organized and warn respondents that it is quite long. We ask them to note any product they have heard about, seen on-the-job or actually worked with. After reading this information, respondents are asked to check a box indicating if they are willing to review the inventory list or prefer to skip the list. This helps us to know whether respondents made an active choice about the list versus just skipping the question. A majority (70%) of survey participants opted to review the list. CPWR provided the eLCOSH Inventory list to us in Excel format. The list was organized into categories by type of product. We assigned a letter code for each category and a number code for each product in that group. If a participant recognized a product, they would need to note the code letter and number and, in the next question, enter that information into the appropriate field for each category. This was not our preferred way of handling the inventory list, but it was the best way we could make it work given the limitations of the survey program.

Judging by the strong number of completed responses, we believe the survey design worked well. Most questions could be answered quickly and easily. We did not hear any negative feedback about the survey project from affiliates. Results of the survey are presented in Section C.

B3. Key Informant Questionnaires

Our study plan called for doing 20 key informant interviews with survey participants and three with staff from California government agencies. We created two questionnaires to be used for oral interviews in this study. Samples of both questionnaires are included in the Appendices. The first was for survey respondent follow-up interviews and the second for government agency representative interviews.

Survey follow-up

The purpose of these key informant interviews was to obtain more detailed information from a subset of survey participants who met one or more of the following selection criteria based on their questionnaire responses:

  • Awareness of nanotechnology terms
  • Recognized or used products identified in the eLCOSH Inventory
  • Had received and/or delivered nanotechnology-related training
  • Indicated concerns over potential risks of nanotechnology or nanomaterials

We analyzed the survey results and identified potential key informants. Once we identified a pool that met the above criteria, we narrowed the selection to achieve a balance of trades, and representation from union staff, apprenticeship, and employers. We reached out to members of this group and found 21 who agreed to be key informants. The demographics of this final group are summarized in section B4.

The informant questionnaire is written in a scripted format so that the interviewer could assure consistency between interviews. The interviewer begins by reading a disclosure explaining the purpose for the interview, that it is voluntary, can be stopped at any time, how results will be reported, the confidentiality agreement and informed consent. We also ask permission to digitally record the interviews to assure we capture informants' responses accurately. All 21 interviewees agreed to be recorded.

Questioning begins with demographic information: occupation; trade; employment status; job title; years in the trade. Since this interview is being conducted in follow-up to the interviewee's survey responses, the questions match the topics covered in the online survey. There are a total of 24 questions that relate to nanotechnology awareness and knowledge, eLCOSH Inventory, training, risks and concerns. Key informants are only asked questions that are relevant to their survey responses, so not all 24 questions are covered with each interviewee. Our hope was that we could prompt key informants to describe their thoughts related to nanotechnology and provide more details about their experiences. The length of these interviews averaged 23 minutes (range: 9-46 minutes) per subject.

Government Agency Representatives

The purpose of these interviews is to find out what's being done within key California public agencies related to oversight of nanotechnology, hazard information, protections for workers, monitoring, tracking, and regulation. These key informants are staffers working within Cal/OSHA, the Department of Public Health (DPH), and the California Environmental Protection Agency's Department of Toxic Substances Control (DTSC) sharing their perspectives on nanotechnology. The interview included 13 questions pertaining to the role different agencies serve with regard to nanotechnology, current programs, enforcement, education, collaboration and data sharing. We explored interviewees' knowledge of applications of nanotechnology in construction and if any specific issues or concerns have surfaced. We also wanted to learn who their trusted sources are for information about nanotechnology and nanomaterials. These interviews ranged from 30-60 minutes in length.

B4. Demographics

This information is summarized separately for online survey respondents and key informant interviewees, the two main groups addressed in this study. In the online survey we asked for quite a lot of demographic information. This is useful not only to assure we met our target population goals, but also to look for any trends that may emerge among subgroup relationships with nanotechnology. Since key informants were a subgroup of survey respondents, we simply asked for their occupation, trade, and how many years they had worked in construction.

B4a. Online Survey Overview

  • Contact Information: We collected participant names, e-mails and phone numbers so that we could contact candidates for key informant interviews.

  • Age Groups: Respondents were asked to check one of five predefined age groups. Almost three quarters of the survey group were over 45 years of age. This is not atypical of our target population of union and apprenticeship staff. Most of these positions are filled by journeymen craft workers who transition from working "with the tools" into leadership, administrative, and instructor roles.

    41% (n=103) were over 55 years of age
    31% (n=78) were 45-54 years of age
    21% (n=52) were 35-44 years of age
    6% (n=16) were 25-34
    1% (n=3) were 18-24 years old.

  • Affiliation: Respondents were asked to identify their current affiliation from a list of five options, including "other" in which they could write-in their own description. While 17% of respondents chose the "other" option, they wrote-in affiliations covered by one of the four options we had listed. These responses have been allocated to the appropriate category in the summary below.

    40% Union Apprenticeship Representative (n= 101)
    30% Union Representative (n= 76)
    19% Construction Craft Worker (journeyman/apprentice)—includes 8 retirees (n= 49)
    9% Construction Contractor Representative (n= 22)
    2% Other (risk management, safety consultant, educator) (n= 4)

    This list meets our target audience for the study. It makes sense that the strongest participation (70%) came from union and apprenticeship staff given that this is the core group the SBCTC represents. We have a strong working relationship with union apprenticeship programs and have built a solid reputation for offering health and safety training to their instructors and coordinators. We believe that these individuals have a lot to offer to this study as they are responsible for teaching their craft and providing health and safety training to both apprentice and journey level workers. We had hoped to get more participation from employers, but they seemed reluctant to buy into the project.

  • Job Titles: We received 246 responses to this fill-in-the-blank question, 7 chose to skip. Our respondents represent a good cross-section of positions within our target audience. These are individuals who have influence over training, deal with workers' concerns and issues at their job sites, manage health and safety protocols and make decisions about materials. We would expect these leaders to be well positioned to provide feedback on innovations and new technologies that impact their crafts and job sites.

    Category Job Titles Summary
    Apprenticeship Administrator; Training Director; Coordinator; Instructor; Facility Supervisor
    Union Business Manager; Assistant Business Manager; Business Agent/Rep; District Rep/Trustee; Compliance Officer; Secretary/Treasurer; President; Vice President; Organizer;
    Construction Management Safety Coordinator/ Director/Manager; Senior Safety Engineer; Site Safety Manager; Project Executive/Manager/Estimator; General Foreman; Superintendent; Logistics Superintendent;
    Craft Workers Foreman; Journeyman; Apprentice; Technician; Installer; Retiree
    Risk Management Senior Risk Consultant; Owner Safety Consulting

  • Company Size: Respondents were asked to identify the size of their company/organization by selecting from a range of five options. There was also an "I Don't Know" option available. More than half (52%) of the 250 respondents who answered this question indicated they worked for companies/organizations with more than 200 employees. The next largest group (12%) represented companies with less than 20 employees. The third largest group (10%) fell into the "I Don't Know" category. The remaining responses were almost evenly spread among the other options as follows: 9.6% 100-200 employees; 8.8% 20-50 employees; 7.6% 50-100 employees. It is difficult to interpret the significance of these numbers because we don't know how respondents interpreted the question. For union reps they may be referring to the number of members in their local. Apprenticeship program instructors can work full-time for the training center or work full-time in their craft and also teach nights or weekends at training centers.

  • Crafts Represented: One of our goals for this study was to gather feedback from a crosssection of construction trades. All survey respondents (n=253) answered this question, none opted to skip. The survey questionnaire asked respondents to identify their primary trade by choosing from a list of 25 crafts. In addition to this list, respondents could choose an "Other" option and write-in their own description or select "I have not worked in a trade." Some of the responses given in the "Other" category actually fit into one of the 25 listed crafts. We have added those responses to the totals for these respective crafts. Only 4 individuals (2% of respondents) indicated that they had not worked in a trade.

    The breakdown of responses by individual craft is as follows:
    33% Electrical Workers (n=83)
    22% Plumbers/Pipefitters/Steamfitters (n=55)
    11% Heat and Frost Insulators (n=27)
    6% Iron Workers (n=14)
    4% Operating Engineers (n=9)
    3% Sheet Metal Workers (n=7)

    For crafts that had four or fewer respondents, results are summarized here in aggregate:
    − 4 respondents each: Cement Masons; Drywall Finishers; Painters; Roofer/Waterproofers. (n=16)
    − 3 respondents each: Boilermakers; Carpenters; Floor Covering Installers; HVAC; Laborers; Plasterers. (n=18)
    − 2 respondents each: Elevator Constructors; Glaziers; Tile Layers/Finishers; Bricklayers. (n=8)
    − 1 respondent each: Drywall Lathers; Millwrights; Teamsters (n=3)

    9 people clicked the “Other” box; those we couldn’t add to our list of crafts included 5 in construction safety, one tradeshow installer, one in IT, and 2 general contractors.

    We were thrilled to have all but one craft (Pile Drivers) represented in our study even though many crafts had only 1-2 participants. We were surprised to have as many Electricians and Plumbers/Pipefitters/Steamfitters respond. This may be attributed to them having large union locals and bigger training centers that could distribute our survey invitation to a larger pool. The Insulators have a keen interest in the topic of nanotechnology and they distributed the survey invitation to their international union which is why we got responses from outside of California.

  • Years in the trade: This question seeks to measure levels of experience among respondents. Of the 246 respondents who answered this question, 41% had been in construction for 30+ years; 28% were in for 20-29 years; 21% for 10-19 years; 5% for 5 less than four years; and just under 5% for 5-9 years.

  • Training of others: Since training is one of the key topics of interest in our study, we wanted to know what percentage of survey respondents actually provide training to others in construction. The majority of respondents, a little more than 77% (n=196) indicated that they provide training to others. Less than a quarter of survey participants were nontrainers.

    The trainer subgroup was then asked to indicate primarily who they train from a list of six options. Respondents could select more than one option. They could also select "Other" and fill in their own answer. The top answer was "Apprentices at a union JATC" receiving 74%. The second most selected option at 43% was "Journeymen at a union JATC" followed by "Front-line workers on-the-job" at 26%, “Foremen" at 19%, "Union staff" at 11%, and "Management" at 9%. Responses in the "Other" option totaled 5% and included: other trainers; those who train “all of the above;” union members; college students; project management teams.

    We also wanted to know respondents' level of experience as trainers. Those who train were fairly evenly spread across the number of years they’ve been training. A slight majority (29%) had been training for 10-19 years, followed by 27% who had trained less than 4 years, and next 25% who had trained from 5-9 years. It is notable that a little over 10% had been training for 30 years or more, and just under 10% for 20-29 years. Close to half of survey participants who are trainers have more than 10 years of experience at delivering construction training.

This concludes the demographic information collected through the online survey. Results of the remaining survey questions are reported in "Section C. Results/Data Summary." We feel we met our target population goal, reaching a diversity of trades and a balance of apprenticeship and union representatives. Of note, we had fewer contractors respond than we anticipated. We did significant outreach to contractor organizations that we had worked with in the past to help us disseminate the survey to their members. The response to this outreach could be described as "lukewarm" with one association declining outright our request to share the survey with their members. Other associations showed slight interest but did not actually follow through in disseminating the survey request to their members. The contractor representatives who did participate in the study were, for the most part, individuals who had attended health and safety training programs that we offer.

B4b. Key Informant (Survey Follow-Up) Overview

The 21 survey respondents interviewed as key informants came from 13 different crafts. In choosing these individuals from the pool of eligible candidates, we selected for a cross-section of crafts and for those whose questionnaire answers met multiple aspects of our selection criteria. Given the scope of this study project, it was feasible only to interview a small number of key informants. We realized from the outset that it would not be a statistically relevant sample size representative of any one group. Therefore, we were most interested in hearing several different perspectives from a variety of participants who had many years of experience working in construction. Through these conversations we hoped to gain further insight into their understanding of nanotechnology generally as well as give them the opportunity to describe any specific experience in their own words. The following demographic information describing this subset was derived from a combination of their interview and survey responses.

  • Age Groups
    57% (n=12) were over 55 years of age
    29% (n=6) were 45-54 years of age
    5% (n=1) was 35-44 years of age
    10% (n=2) were 25-34

  • Current Affiliation: We noted that many had changed roles in their careers, often moving from positions in apprenticeship programs to union staff or vice versa.
    52% (n=11)—Union Apprenticeship representatives
    24% (n=5)—Union Staff
    14% (n=3)—Contractor/Management
    10% (n=2)—Multiple roles (Apprenticeship/Union officer; Craft worker/Union staff)

  • Job Titles: Administrator; Business Agent; Business Manager; Business Rep; President; Coordinator; Director; General Foreman; Instructor; Superintendent; Safety Manager; Journeyman

  • Company Size: The demographics of this subgroup closely mirror those of the larger survey group, with more than half working for companies/organizations with more than 200 employees, the second largest group for companies with less than 20 employees. The breakdown is as follows:
    >200 employees (n=13)
    <20 employees (n=3)
    100-200 employees (n=2)
    50-100 employees (n=1)
    20-50 employees (n=1)
    Didn't know (n=1)

  • Crafts Represented: The trades with the most representation in the online survey were electricians, plumber/pipefitters/steamfitters, and insulators. We factored this into key informant selection along with the other criteria. The following trades were represented by key informants: Insulators (4)
    Plumber/Pipefitter/Steamfitters (3)
    Electricians (2)
    Cement Masons (2)
    (All remaining had 1)

      Boilermakers
      Carpenters
      Drywall/Lathers
      Elevator Constructors
      Millwrights
      Plasterers
      Roofers/Waterproofers
      Sheet Metal Workers
      Tile Layer/Finisher

  • Years in the Trade: Key informants had a high level of experience working in construction, with 67% (n=14) having worked 30 or more years in the industry. Of the remaining 7 individuals, 4 had been in construction for 10-19 years and 3 for 20-29 years. Most had worked their way up the ranks from front-line craft worker to positions in apprenticeship programs, union staff positions, or management. Of the 21 individuals in the key informant subgroup, 3 still actively worked in their trade at construction job sites, 86% were no longer "working with the tools." It is important to note that this reflects our target audience for the scope of this study project; we did not plan to recruit journey level or apprentice front-line workers.

  • Training of Others: Within our key informant subgroup, 90% are actively involved in training workers either on-the-job or through apprenticeship programs. Only 2 individuals indicated they did not train others. The level to which union construction stakeholders are receiving or giving training relevant to nanotechnology is one of our topics of exploration through this study.

In summary, the survey follow-up key informant group includes highly-experienced construction professionals who hold leadership positions and have control over worker training programs. While they may not work with the tools anymore, they are the people responsible for educating union workers to perform their craft, managing joint programs with employers, addressing health and safety training and concerns, and preparing new workers just entering the profession for using cutting-edge technologies and products in the heavy industrial/commercial construction sector. Their understanding and perception of nanotechnology can be expected to influence the workforce in a significant way.

B4c. Key Informant (Government Agency) Overview

We were able to get five individuals serving on staff at three California government agencies to agree to be interviewed for our study. The agencies represented are: Cal/OSHA; Department of Public Health (DPH) Health and Human Services (HHS) and Occupational Health Branch (OHB) sectors; CA Environmental Protection Agency Department of Toxic Substances Control (DTSC).

These individuals have held the following job titles: Senior Safety Engineer; Toxicologist; Research Scientist; Chief of Site Assessment; Deputy Director; Chief Scientist.

Three of the five people interviewed had worked at their agencies in various capacities for 25- 30 years, and the remaining two for 2-6 years. All had some level of experience with nanotechnology and nanomaterials. None of the interviewees participated in our study as official public information spokespersons for their agencies, but rather, were sharing their personal experience working as professionals within the public sector. We will consider the input they shared to be their own and not necessarily reflective of the position of their agency. Results of these interviews will be presented in aggregate to protect the confidentiality of individual respondents.

C. RESULTS/DATA SUMMARY

The information we collected in this study falls under these key topic areas as identified in Section B2 Table 1:

  • Awareness of nanotechnology
  • Training related to nanotechnology
  • Benefits and concerns related to nanotechnology
  • Information sources and need for training
  • eLCOSH Inventory

These topic areas apply to both the survey and follow-up interview data we collected, however, because these two methods are very distinct, it is most efficient to present the results separately. Online survey results are summarized first in Section C1 and then follow-up key informant interview feedback in Section C2.

Key informant interviews of government agency staff followed a different line of questioning that was more appropriate to their experience level. Results of these interviews are summarized in aggregate in Section C3 and are organized by individual question rather than general topics.

C1. Online Survey Results

The following is a summary of data collected from the 253 surveys completed online through the SurveyMonkey platform. The demographics for this group of respondents was described previously in Section B4a.

C1a. Awareness of nanotechnology

There were three questions (#s 12-14) designed to determine to what extent study subjects had basic awareness or recognition of nanotechnology. These related to nanotechnology terminology, applications in construction, and personal experience with nano-enabled materials.

Question #12 asked participants to indicate if they had heard any of these four terms:
    Nanotechnology
    Nanoparticles
    Nano-enabled materials
    Engineered nanomaterials

They were instructed to select all that applied. Respondents could also indicate that they had never heard of any of the terms or that they were not sure if they had heard them or not. All 253 survey participants responded to this question. At this point, two distinct groups immediately emerged, those with and without knowledge. 81% (n=205) of survey participants responded in the affirmative, recognizing one or more of these terms or indicating that they weren't sure if they had heard them. These respondents continued forward to the next survey question.

The second group comprising 19% (n=48) of survey participants indicated that they had never heard of any of the terms. This effectively tells us they have no awareness of nanotechnology at all. At this point, these respondents were automatically advanced to the final set of questions regarding the eLCOSH Inventory product list, skipping the bulk of the survey in between. We felt that it would be fruitless to have participants go through a lot of questions about which they likely had no knowledge but believed it would be significant to know if they recognized any nano-enabled products from the inventory, whether or not they were aware of nanotechnology generally. We will look at results from this smaller sub-group first.

Subgroup Indicating No Awareness

While our survey gathered much more information from study participants who indicated some level of knowledge about nanotechnology, we were equally interested in examining the makeup of the group who did not indicate any awareness. This information can be very useful for targeting future outreach and education efforts.

The 48 survey respondents who indicated no awareness of nanotechnology terms came from 14 different trades as shown below. For most of these trades, these individuals represented only a portion of total survey respondents from their craft. These percentages are shown in column two. The one exception is Floor Covering Installers; 100% of whom indicated they had not heard of terms.

Trade % of Total Respondents Surveyed from That Trade (=N)
Floor Covering Installer 100% (3)
Drywall Finisher 50% (2)
Operating Engineer 44% (4)
Carpenter 33% (1)
HVAC 33% (1)
Laborer 33% (1)
Plumber 30% (6)
Cement Mason 25% (1)
Painter 25% (1)
Iron Worker 21% (3)
Electrician 16% (13)
Sheet Metal Worker 14% (1)
Pipefitter/Steamfitter 11% (4)
Insulator 11% (3)

With regard to affiliation, this subgroup closely matched the composition of the general survey group. Shown below is the breakdown within the subgroup and the percentage of total survey respondents they represent:

Affiliation % of Subgroup % of Larger Survey Pool w/Same Affiliation
Union Apprenticeship 46% (n=22) 22%
Union Representative 27% (n=13) 17%
Construction Craft Worker 19% (n=9) 18%
Construction Contractor 8% (n=4) 18%

We discovered that three of the respondents who self-identified their affiliation as Union Apprenticeship Representatives concurrently hold positions for contractors as safety managers and foremen. It is not atypical in the union construction sector for individuals to hold more than one position, working on jobsites during the day and instructing apprentices at evening or weekend classes. We trust that study participants chose the affiliation that best represents them.

More than half of this subgroup were from large companies/organizations with over 200 employees and over 83% provide training to others. All but two have worked in their trade for 10 years or more, with over 36% having more than 30 years of experience. Positions held by these individuals are: Safety Manager; Project Manager; Senior Safety Engineer; General Foreman and Foreman; Instructor; Apprenticeship Coordinator; Business Manager; Journeyman; Apprentice; Business Rep; District Rep.

We did not find signs from this information to indicate that this subgroup stands-out as significantly differing from the larger pool of survey respondents. The sample size is simply too small to infer any general conclusions. When looking at only a few individuals, differences may be attributed to any number of personal factors that influence awareness. What is interesting is that, for the majority of these trades (12 out of 14), more respondents had heard of nanotechnology than not, even though other factors (affiliation, company size, job title, years of experience, trainer status) were consistent.

Regarding affiliation, just under a quarter of all survey respondents representing apprenticeship training programs indicated no awareness of nanotechnology terms. Most of this subgroup are trainers yet have no awareness. It also seems surprising that employer representatives in high level positions relating to safety, project management and worker supervision are among those with no awareness of nanotechnology.

Almost a quarter (n=11) of these 48 study participants, while having no awareness of nanotechnology, recognized products in the eLCOSH Inventory. These findings will be covered in Section C1e.

Subgroup Indicating a Level of Awareness

Of the 205 who gave affirmative answers to Question 12, only 19% (n=47) were “not sure” if they’d heard of any of the terms. Of the four terms tested, "Nanotechnology" topped the list for recognition with "Nanoparticles" being the second most recognized. Awareness of terms diminished each time they became more specific such as "Engineered nanomaterials" and "Nano-enabled materials." We did not randomize choices on this survey question; nevertheless the last two terms were not selected in the order listed. Here are the results for this subgroup:

  • Nanotechnology 77% (n=157)
  • Nanoparticles 45% (n=93)
  • Engineered nanomaterials 29% (n=59)
  • Nano-enabled materials 27% (n=55)

Because it was a "check all that apply" question, 48% (n=98) of respondents selected multiple terms. Of those, 41 recognized all four terms, 11 recognized three terms, and 46 recognized two terms from the list.

The 41 who demonstrated the greatest awareness of terms came from these trades in descending order: Electricians; Insulators; Pipefitter/Steamfitters; Roofer/Waterproofers; Iron Workers; Plasterers; Plumbers; Cement Masons; Glaziers; Sheet Metal Workers; Tile Layers/Finishers. There were also 4 contractor representatives in this group who were not affiliated with any trade. All 205 participants advanced to the next awareness questions. Questions #13 and #14 of our survey ask for the same data that was covered in four questions on 2014 OPCMIA survey provided to us by CPWR.

Question #13 asked if respondents were aware of nanotechnology being applied in the construction industry and/or that products containing nanomaterials are commercially available in the United States. Within this subgroup of 205 participants, 44% (n=90) answered no and 31% (n=63) said yes. The remaining 25% (n=52) were not sure. At this point, those respondents who checked "no" were automatically advanced to Question #20 relating to Nanotechnology Benefits and Concerns, skipping past the personal experience and training questions. Logically, if these respondents had seen or used nano-enabled products on-the-job or received/delivered training about nanotechnology in construction, we could infer that they would have answered this question affirmatively. The remaining 115 respondents continued on to the next series of questions.

With Question #14 we tried to delve deeper to learn if the 115 respondents had any personal experience with nano-enabled products. 22 said that they had “noticed product(s) incorporating nanotechnology or marketed with the word "nano" on-the-job. 13 said they had actually worked with a nano-enabled product first-hand. 25 knew other workers who had used nano-enabled products but had not themselves. 51 had no experience of nano products and 25 did not know. This was a "check all that apply" question and some individuals checked multiple boxes.

Looking more closely at the responses of the 13 who knew they had actually worked first-hand with nano-enabled materials, we learned that the majority (11) are Insulators. The remaining 2 are a Painter and a Pipefitter/Steamfitter. It is significant to note that this group represents only 5% of all online survey participants.

Those who had used products were asked to describe them in a comment box. The Insulators, who were hyper-aware of one specific group of nano-enabled insulation products, provided the most comments (7) about the materials. These products caused them great concern and we hear about them throughout the survey and key informant interviews. Their concerns are discussed later in Section C1c. Two other comments were made by non-Insulators, one mentioning new orbital welding machines with "nano heads," while the other referenced having worked as a mechanical contractor in the semi-conductor and pharmaceutical industries but did not actually identify any specific products.

Awareness of nanotechnology among the majority of our survey population appears to be fairly general, and primarily related to recognition of commonly used terms. We cannot know from this level of research if that knowledge comes from their construction experience or from other sources unrelated to their work. Nor does it tell us the depth of their understanding of these terms. The number of survey participants who have more specific awareness decreased each time we asked more detailed questions, and dropped significantly when we looked for first-hand, personal experience using actual applications of nanotechnology in construction. In fact, that experience was clearly dominated by one craft.

We cannot discern from the survey responses how many participants may unwittingly be exposed to nanotechnology and nano-enabled products in construction. The next section continues on with the 115 respondents to explore levels of training they had given or received.

C1b. Training Related to Nanotechnology

Survey questions 15-19 attempt to determine what levels of training individuals experience on the topic of nanotechnology and nano-enabled products. This is similar to a line of questioning used in the 2014 OPCMIA survey provided to us by CPWR.

Question #15 asks participants if they have received and/or delivered training related to nanotechnology or nanomaterials in construction. We received 114 answers to this question. A vast majority of 89% had never had training (n=88) or were not sure if they had training (n=13). These respondents advanced to Question #19, skipping the training detail questions.

Only 5 respondents (4 Insulators and 1 contractor safety consultant) indicated they had received training, accounting for only 4% of the group. The 4 Insulators received training from the company manufacturing and marketing the nano-enabled insulation products. Although we were not able to gather specific details about this training in the online survey, we gathered feedback from Insulators in the follow-up key informant interviews. The safety consultant had attended a Stanford University research presentation; it was unclear as to whether this related to construction or more generally to nanotechnology.

A total of 8 people (7 insulators and 1 electrician) said they had delivered training on the topic of nanotechnology. Question #16 asked these respondents to describe the training materials they used. Answers included: videos; handouts; Safety Data Sheets; product brochures and product materials; CPWR research material. In Question #17 respondents identified their training material sources as follows: CPWR; product manufacturer materials delivered by company reps; the internet; the environmental health and safety division (no further details were given with this entry). Question #18 asked respondents to use a Likert-type scale to rate usefulness of their current materials ranging from "not useful" to "very useful": 6 felt the materials were useful; 1 rated them very useful; and 1 said they were somewhat useful.

A final question concludes the training section of the survey. At this point we get back to the group of 115 respondents who were aware of nanotechnology applications in construction. Question #19 asks if respondents are interested in getting new training materials regarding nanotechnology in construction. A large majority (75%) were interested. Only 6 were not interested, and 24 were not sure.

What we learned from this section of the survey is that very few respondents have received any training about nanotechnology or nano-enabled products. The 5 respondents who had been trained represent barely 2% of all online survey respondents. Based upon survey results, the only trade that seems to be receiving and delivering training are the Insulators. The training they receive is primarily being presented by company representatives from a manufacturer specific to their product. It is difficult to determine from the survey responses to what extent this training includes general education about nanotechnology applications in construction or health and safety information versus training on how to use their product. More details are revealed from Insulators in the key informant interviews as well as input from other trades that may not have been captured in the survey. We also learned that there is strong interest in new training materials about nanotechnology.

C1c. Benefits and concerns related to nanotechnology

In this section, we return to gathering information from the larger subgroup of 205 respondents who indicated some awareness of nanotechnology through recognition of terms. Our interest here is to explore perceptions and attitudes about nanomaterials and nanotechnology generally. We are looking for any trends in positive, negative, or neutral opinions about possible benefits and effects from nanotechnology applications.

Survey questions #20-23 were taken directly from the 2014 OPCMIA survey provided to us by CPWR. The first three ask respondents to use a Likert scale with 8 choices ranging from "strongly disagree" to "strongly agree" or an "I don't know" option to describe their level of agreement with statements about nanotechnology. Question #23 provides a list of known nanoparticles and asks respondents to check any that raise health and safety concerns. There is also an "I don't know" option. Question #24 asks respondents who checked items on the list to explain their concerns about these nanoparticles.

About half of survey participants who answered each question chose "I don't know" as their response. Of those who chose a rating from the scale, a slight majority of our respondents were neutral, neither agreeing nor disagreeing with the statements. For those who were not neutral, the propensity was towards agreement to each question. The strongest agreement was that nanotechnology could provide significant environmental and public benefit. Next was that occupational exposures could pose a significant health risk. And last was that nanotechnology in construction could potentially harm the environment. These are the results for each question.

Strongly Disagree Disagree Slightly Disagree Neither Agree Nor Disagree Slightly Agree Agree Strongly Agree I don't know
Occupational exposures to nanomaterials likely pose a significant health risk to construction workers.
2 5 7 39 9 24 13 106
Discounting the 106 people who marked “I Don’t Know” the weighted average of those who answered is 5.94, which is just shy of “Agree.”
Use of nanotechnology in construction has the potential to provide significant environmental and public benefit.
2 7 1 30 15 43 8 99
Discounting the 99 people who marked “I Don’t Know” the weighted average of those who answered is 6.36, which is a strong “Agree” moving toward “Strongly Agree.”
Use of nanotechnology in construction has the potential to significantly harm the environment.
0 8 4 45 12 20 3 113
Discounting the 113 people who marked “I Don’t Know” the weighted average of those who answered is 5.52, which is midway between Slightly Agree and Agree.

When asked whether specific nanoparticles raise occupational health and safety concerns, 66% (n=133) of 201 respondents said, “I don’t know.” The remaining 68 respondents noted concern about each of the items on the list as follows:

Nanoparticles Number of Responses
Zinc Oxide 52
Aluminum Oxide 50
Titanium Dioxide 42
Cerium Oxide 36
Copper 34
Carbon Nanotubes 34

Question #24 asks these respondents to further describe their concerns about these nanoparticles in a write-in comment box. 57 of our respondents explained their concerns as follows:

  • 13 responses expressed concern about generic “health effects.” Comments: “Coming from an industry that dealt with the asbestos issues, members are scared.” “So small you can’t see, similar to silica.”
  • 14 responses cited respiratory programs, lung damage, and inhalation.
  • 12 responses were about the “unknown.” These included:
    “Past history leads me to be cautious of materials I am not completely familiar with. What you don’t know can kill you.”
    “If you are asking the questions, I need to know and be informed.”
    “I don’t know how they are being applied.”
    “That materials will be used without proper testing.”
    “My concern would be that we don't necessarily know enough about these different materials and their potential risk to workers now or in the future due to prolonged exposure.”
    “That most workers will not know their exposure levels until it is too late.”
  • Other concerns were about different types of health effects. These included:
    • Dust and material that does not wash or may be air blown coming in contact with skin or other body surface;
    • Ingestion of small particulates;
    • Eyes, lungs and skin;
    • Nanoparticles crossing a cell membrane and causing harm to cellular mechanisms;
    • Cancer or Alzheimer's disease;
    • “Safety practices to limit airborne exposure and the health risks of exposure"
  • 2 people mentioned specific concern about aluminum, one about titanium, and one about carbon nanotubes.
    • Any amount of metal exposure can be a potential for poisoning if precautionary measures fail. As well as certain nanoparticles being a key contributor to the possible creation of adenocarcinomas cancer cells in the human lungs.
    • Coating air molecules with various elements that have the capability to move through humans. My first train of thought is always about what is left behind or what did not make its way out.
    • Environmental runoff and overall lack of training by installers and end users.
    • None….not really sure what risks they pose if they have been cleared by government?
    • If any of these become or are ingredients in any of the materials that the cement mason uses.
    • Need to educate myself on this subject before I am opinionated.

In Question #25 we ask respondents if they are aware of any worker health issues or complaints related to working with nanomaterials. Of the 198 people who answered this question, a large majority 92% (n=183) answered "no" with only 15 individuals saying yes. Of these 15 who said they were aware of complaints, 12 were insulators, and the others were a sheet metal worker, electrician, and a plumber/pipefitter. When asked to describe the issues/complaints, 10 were specifically concerned about dry skin, bloody nose, can’t wash it off; drying out skin and eyes; difficulty breathing; the immediate health effects such as moisture absorption to your entire body. Two people mentioned Mesothelioma. One said that the workers hate the product, but this was mostly because it was difficult to get a professional finish and to clean up.

C1d. Information sources and need for training

In this section of the survey we seek to learn more about where our study subjects would likely search for information and if they would have interest in being provided with nanotechnology information in the future. We also are interested in knowing their opinion regarding the value of future training on this topic.

Survey Questions #26-28 applied to our 205-respondent subgroup. These respondents were asked to check (from a list of 10) which sources they would trust most if they wanted to learn about potential hazards of working with nanomaterials. In descending order, these were:

    Cal OSHA (127)
    Federal OSHA (98)
    Union (96)
    CPWR (73)
    NIOSH (68)
    Internet Search (60)
    Trade/Employer Association (40)
    Industry journals (39)
    Colleagues (31)
    My employer (25)
    Other (please specify) (11) Respondents wrote-in: independent studies; the SDS; the Canadian Ministries of Labour and Health; environmental organizations.

74% of our respondents indicated that they would be interested in getting more information about nanotechnology or nanomaterials in construction. 16% were not sure and 10% were not interested in further information.

When asked if providing training about nanomaterials in construction would be valuable, 67% (n=136) of our respondents felt that it would and 31% indicated they were not sure. Only four people said that there would be no value.

C1e. eLCOSH Inventory

As part of the study, we wanted to find out if people had awareness of any nano-enabled products. The final three survey questions address respondents' awareness of products listed in the eLCOSH Inventory. We got the list from CPWR and it numbered more than 500. We were challenged by how to present such a large list in a way that enabled respondents to most easily find the products that might relate to their craft. A further challenge was that SurveyMonkey design options did not let us include any kind of check boxes next to the product names. We dealt with these challenges by clearly headlining each product group and numbering each product. Respondents were then instructed to jot down the number assigned to each product that they recognized, and list those numbers at the end. No doubt, we lost several responses with this process.

All 253 survey participants had the option of answering these questions. Participants first indicated if they were willing to review the rather lengthy list of products. 71% (n=179) of respondents agreed to review the list. The remaining 74 survey participants who preferred to skip the list review advanced past the remaining questions to the end of the survey.

Of the 179 participants who reviewed the list, 32% (n=57) said that no products looked familiar and 24% (n=43) were not sure. 44% (n=79) responded that some products stood out as ones they recognized or had used. Out of these 79, there were 68 respondents from our subgroup of participants with awareness of nanotechnology and 11 from the subgroup with no awareness of nanotechnology. We will review the eLCOSH Inventory findings for each of these groups separately beginning with those who had never heard the nanotechnology terms.

Subgroup Indicating No Awareness

From the subgroup of 48 respondents who had not heard of nanotechnology or other related terms, 11 recognized or had used products listed in the eLCOSH Inventory. Of these, 7 identified specific products in the following 20 out of the possible 33 categories:

  • Coatings (Paints)
  • Coatings (mineral surfaces)
  • Coatings (Glass/Ceramic)
  • Coatings (Multi-surface)
  • Coatings (Wood)
  • Coatings (metal)
  • Lumber
  • Drywall
  • Metal
  • Weatherproofing membranes
  • Additives for concrete/cement
  • Additives for Asphalt
  • Additives for coatings
  • Adhesives
  • Caulking
  • Cement-based
  • Flooring
  • Patching compounds
  • Surface preparation
  • Thermal spray coating materials

A table listing the specific products identified in each category is included in the Appendices. The 7 respondents came from the following 6 trades: Carpenters; Cement Masons; Drywall Finishers; Floor Covering Installers; Iron Workers; Plumbers. The most frequently recognized product listings in the eLCOSH Inventory are generic such as: exterior/interior paint; treated lumber; shower and tile treatment. Unless 100% of these available products on the market are nano-enabled, it is not clear whether respondents are using nano or non-nano products.

Subgroup Indicating a Level of Awareness

From our subgroup of 205 respondents who had heard of one or more nanotechnology terms, 68 recognized or had used products listed in the eLCOSH Inventory and 58 of these actually listed the products they recognized. This group represented 18 different crafts (listed below), a safety consultant and a General Contractor Safety Director.

    Boilermakers
    Carpenters
    Cement Masons
    Drywall Finishers
    Drywall/Lathers
    Electricians
    Elevator Constructors
    Glaziers
    Insulators
    Iron Workers
    Millwrights
    Operating Engineers
    Painters
    Pipefitters/Steamfitters
    Plasterers
    Plumbers
    Sheet Metal Workers
    Tile Layers/Finishers

The two categories with the highest responses were Insulation and Lumber with 21 and 18 responses each. The categories with recognized products are listed below in descending order.

  • Insulation
  • Lumber
  • Drywall
  • Caulking
  • Coatings (Glass/Ceramic)
  • Coatings (Paints)
  • Coatings (mineral surfaces)
  • Coatings (metal)
  • Weatherproofing membranes
  • Adhesives
  • Weld Overlays
  • Coatings: Multi-surface
  • Coatings: Wood
  • Cement-based
  • Joint Sealants
  • Additives for concrete/cement
  • Metal
  • Patching Compounds
  • Flooring
  • Fuel Additives
  • Surface preparation
  • Roofing
  • Additives for Asphalt
  • HVAC
  • Additives for coatings
  • Lubricants
  • Thermal Spray coating materials
  • Glass and solar panels
  • Miscellaneous

For the following categories, respondents entered information that did not match our coding system, so their answers are not clear. Each of the first 3 categories have only one product so it is possible that respondents meant to identify that. There are multiple products listed in the "Prepregs" category so we're not sure which of these respondents were trying to identify.

  • Fasteners
  • Interior design
  • Boiler Additives
  • Prepregs

It is interesting that, if we count the 4 categories with unclear responses, survey participants identified products in all 33 categories that were included in the eLCOSH Inventory. In total, 65 survey participants made the effort to note specific products that stood out to them from the eLCOSH Inventory. This represents 36% of respondents who claimed they reviewed the list and 26% of all survey participants. A majority of our survey participants did not identify specific products for reasons unknown. The list may have been too long and complicated. The method we needed to use to note products may have been too cumbersome. For some who had never heard of nanotechnology, looking at a long list may have seemed fruitless even though we did not say the products on the list were nanomaterials. This is a first attempt at bringing the eLCOSH Inventory to our target audience. The response level we achieved was better than we had expected. Additionally, the key informant follow-up interviews helped us learn more about this question with 16 of our 21 subjects having participated in the eLCOSH Inventory review. These individuals represent 9 different crafts and a contractor. These results will be presented in the next section on key informant interviews.'

C2. Key Informant Follow-Up Interview Results

The 21 respondents who participated in key informant interviews were selected because their online survey responses indicated they possessed some knowledge and/or direct experience with nanotechnology/nanomaterials, had received training on the topic, or held some concern about its use in construction. Our line of questioning used in these interviews was divided into four segments related to the topics covered in our online survey:

  • Awareness—We asked questions that would draw out more detail about the respondents' general knowledge of nanotechnology, their understanding of its meaning, their ability to describe it to others, and its application in construction. Also, in this section, we explore their perspective on nanotechnology's impact on construction and any information they would like to have on the topic.
  • Product Experience/eLCOSH Inventory—In this segment, our questioning refers back to products respondents identified from the eLCOSH Inventory, their history and experience with these materials, product-related training they may have received, and their reaction to using these materials in their trade.
  • Training about Nanotechnology—Respondents are asked to describe any training they have either received and/or delivered as well as ideas for what information they feel should be covered in new training that may be developed on the topic.
  • Risk and Concerns Related to Nanotechnology/Nanomaterials—This section provides respondents the opportunity to open-up and express any fears and concerns, either perceived or based on experience, related to nanotechnology and the use of new nanomaterials and to share what they have done to address these issues. We also seek to identify awareness of any standards and controls that apply to use of nanomaterials and hear what they believe to be the most important things workers and employers need to know to use nanotechnology safely in construction.

We interviewed 4 Insulators, more than from any other single craft, because our survey results indicated that they have the most experience with actual usage of nano-enabled products and training. We thought it was worth hearing about their experience from more than 1 or 2 individuals to see if there are consistencies or differences. Since we also had a larger group of survey participants from the Plumbers/Pipefitters/Steamfitters, we spoke with 3 individuals from that craft. There were 3 crafts (Cement Masons, Tile Layer/Finishers, Electricians) from which we had 2 viable candidates each. The remaining 7 crafts from which we had only 1 informant each, and the single contractor representative are aggregated together into the "Other" group. Here is the affiliation breakdown for these key informants:

    Union Apprenticeship representatives—(n=11)
    Union Staff—(n=5)
    Contractor/Management— (n=3)
    Multiple roles (Apprenticeship/Union officer; Craft worker/Union staff)—(n=2)

We found it useful to organize responses to certain questions by craft so that we could determine if themes emerge across all trades or remain specific to one craft. In other cases, where individual craft delineations did not seem significant, we present the findings in aggregate. The findings are reported according to the four topic segments described previously.

C2a. Awareness of nanotechnology

This is the core topic of our study, attempting to discover to what level members of the union construction sector are aware of nanotechnology. We spent a good part of each interview on this segment, asking a variety of questions to draw out reactions, experiences, knowledge and applications related to nanotechnology and nano-enabled products. Findings for each question are presented with a summary followed by a table of actual responses, organized by craft, so that the words of the respondents are in the record.

First Thing That Comes to Mind

Interviews for the awareness section began with the simple question, "What's the first thing that comes to mind when I say nanotechnology?" This would give us an immediate sense of respondents' basic perception of nanotechnology. Informants' answers were quite varied; there was no single consistent answer that would indicate a common, shared knowledge of the meaning of nanotechnology. Frequency of repeated themes are listed here in descending order, including the number of times they were mentioned:

  • Very small size (9)
  • New products/processes (5)
  • Particles (4)
  • Computers/automation/robots/AI (3)
  • Future/futuristic (3)
  • Don't know (2)

Aside from a few who gave short, direct answers, many informants seemed to exhibit a somewhat vague sense of what nanotechnology means, stretching to come up with an explanation. A couple of Insulators immediately associated the term with their experience of a specific product and manufacturer. We weren't looking for a right or wrong answer here, but rather an initial reaction to the term. Individual responses illustrate the variety of awareness. Quotes are organized by craft and listed in the table below.

Question: What's the first thing that comes to mind when I say nanotechnology?
Trade Group Key Informant Quotes
Insulators
  • "I don't know, something that goes in your body and fights off cells or something like that, I don't know"
  • "Itty-bitty microscopic fibers that make material far more efficient"
  • "Headaches" [The informant went on to explain that this comment refers to challenges experienced as a member of a health and safety committee trying to usher union workers into a specific new nanoenabled material about which] "their mindset was completely negative out-of-the-gate" and "it's always a complaining mechanism from the members"
  • "The first time I ever heard the word, was a company [name redacted]… they came out with a product, it's been out for a while, but we just started seeing it, and they said it was nanotechnology. And I go, 'What's nanotechnology?' didn't even know what it was"
Plumbers/
Pipefitters/
Steamfitters
  • "Quite honestly, I'm not really sure I know the true definition of it, so nothing really comes to mind"
  • "It's a cutting-edge technology like something on the forefront is what I first think of when I hear that"
  • "Nanotechnology has to do with the automation and the use of computers and grading data having to do with making construction more sustainable, raising the bar if you will, and then the other part of it has to do with micro-contamination"
Cement Masons
  • "Sounds small. I don't really know that much about it yet. I did a little bit of research online, but it sounds more…I don't really know what it pertains to. I would think initially, nanotechnology would be, like, almost robotic in a sense or nano or like AI or something. Or maybe they're designing things…in a contemporary way to…better protection or whatnot. I don't know how it relates to construction but, I'm sure it's out there in a computer sense"
  • "Small"
Electricians
  • "First thing would be particles that are unrecognizable or pretty much invisible"
  • "Very, very small things"
Tile Layers/
Finishers
  • "All the new that we have to get used to…and understanding what we do, equipment, materials. Basically adapting to all the new technology. What is really amazing to me that I've got to understand what nanotechnology really is and how does it fall into what I do or what our guys do out in the field, in the trade. So, for me, it's educating myself and so that I can go ahead and educatethe workers"
  • "It's something very, very small like an atom or, you know, like a particle. Or something really, really small, maybe almost like an atomic type of thing, you know, like an atom"
Others
(Boilermaker,
Millwright,
Sheet Metal
Worker,
Elevator
Constructor,
Roofer/
Waterproofer,
Drywall/Lather,
Plasterer,
Contractor
safety rep)
  • "Very, very tiny little robots that aid. So honestly what comes to mind is healing things, putting things together. Constructing things very tall, tiny and microscopic"
  • "Particles, small type particles that they can do work for us"
  • "There's scientific…what do I want to say, scientific experiments and technology that's going on to supposedly make everything wonderful. But we don't know that for a fact. It's new technology. Whenever something new comes out…but we do see that, or I see it, in about every phase of construction that I've dealt with…to some extent I see it"
  • "I think of like, almost futuristic, or technology that's being observed or…it's new technology…I mean I go on a job site I see something new and I think, 'Oh, how did that come about?' It's just new technology. Something that's being tried to make it safer for the worker. I see it from the employer's point of view. It's something that maybe makes the job go quicker, helps protect them, but I hope it's a positive thing"
  • "Well, nanotechnology sounds really like something futuristic. But, unfortunately, a lot of us working on the trades, we don't realize that there are already some products maybe on the market or maybe already used into construction that is already surrounding us, and, by not being aware of it, we might be exposed to maybe some kind of hazards by working with this nanotechnology"
  • "It would have to be more involved in new products that are coming about, and then also, new processes to either install these products or maintain these products"
  • "Future"
  • "Finer and finer particles being used to create products without thought of how it will impact the end-user or the guy milling it and forming it or putting the building together"

First Awareness

Next, we wanted to know how and when respondents first became aware that nanotechnology was being used in construction. Five out of the 21 interviewed indicated their first awareness came through participation in this study. For others who could recall when they became aware, most indicated it had been within the last 3-8 years. One person, a Plumber, thought they had first heard of it in construction as far back as 1986 related to "medical gas" work, but were not sure it was called nanotechnology. One safety professional had actually studied nanotechnology in an industrial hygiene course as part of training for Construction Health and Safety Technician (CHST) certification.

Insulators demonstrated the most in-depth knowledge and actual personal experience with material known to be nano-enabled. These respondents consistently focused around a couple of specific products from one manufacturer that had been introduced to their field about 8 years ago. They were the only interviewees that actively engaged about the pros and cons of using a specific nano-enabled material in construction, receiving feedback from front-line workers, actively discussing worker health and safety concerns, training, and exposure control strategies. They stood out from all other trades as having the most to say about application of nanotechnology in construction and expressed passionate concerns about its use in their craft. The concerns they voiced are peppered throughout their interviews and crossover the four topics we explored.

As for other trades, we found a more generic understanding of nanotechnology, with some respondents indicating a basic awareness of how nanomaterials are entering their craft. A few examples surfaced in the interviews as shown below:

  • Roofing—Photovoltaic technology integrated into roofing materials (tiles and liquidapplied membranes) to create solar power-generating grids that are built into roofs.
  • Tile Layers/Finishers—Lasers; preserve or refurbish stone cleaning
  • Millwright—additives to oil and lubrication systems; hydraulics—help analyze viscosity in real-time
  • Plumbers/Pipefitters/Steamfitters—computerized orbital welding; beam modeling and trimble process, BIM (Building Information Modeling); robotics; microbial/bacterial contamination control

No detail was given related to specific personal experience with these applications. The respondents who mentioned them did exhibit an awareness that nanotechnology plays or may play a role in these applications, but information breaks down quickly beyond that recognition. Some awareness is a result of reading trade magazines and information provided by manufacturers or attending trade conferences and hearing about applications being developed for use in the future. With regard to lasers, one respondent said, "At the training center back in Maryland…that's when I first heard about it, and I was made aware…laser technology had a lot to do with nanotechnology." This is a good example of the lack of depth of awareness indicated. Respondents recognize that a new technology is bringing new equipment and processes to construction but speculate about specific impacts. We note that respondents often spoke about nanotechnology in the third person using phrases like "they use," or "they are able to" versus in the first person that would indicate a more personal, direct experience. Actual quotes of responses to this interview question are listed below.

Question: When did you first become aware that nanotechnology was being used in construction?
Trade Group Key Informant Quotes
Insulators
  • "When I filled out your survey. Because it asked me questions about the products I used."
  • About 3 years ago, part of steering committee responsible for developing curriculum to be used across the US and Canada. Had experience with deep cryogenics at JPL NASA, simulated outer space extreme temperatures. Aspen Aerogel reached out when they learned they were developing cryogenic curriculum. Wanted to be part of presentation, had product they wanted in hands of professionals. Discovered they had materials to be used in petrochemical refineries and power plants that was non-corrosive to pipe, also wanted to introduce cold product. First time aware of nanotech use in insulation materials. Started marketing product to Plant Managers on basis that material did not absorb any moisture and pipe was not going to corrode 10, 15, 20 years down the line.
  • "It arrived as an application method in Ontario, Canada roughly 8 years ago, around 2008. Became large application within petrochemical facilities"
  • [Aerogel] "5-7 years ago, somewhere in that range, the first time that I've heard of the product. Aspen came to my facility and did a demonstration."
Plumbers/
Pipefitters/ Steamfitters
  • "Not knowing exactly what it is, I would be speculating, but I would say that when BIM modeling and trimble process started when they were using the robotics satellites to spatially, globally position you on a job site using electronic technology and being able to input that into computer models and make changes and kind of build the building on a computer."
  • "I did this process called computerized orbital welding, and so I've been working at these manufacturers like Intel and different pharmaceuticals where I see what's on the forefront of something that's going to make it to market. Being aware of what's going on with lasers being in construction. It's all electronic world that you're putting information into."
  • "Applied in construction, I would say it had to do when I took my first installer and then instructor and inspector medical gas coursework…would have been fall of 1986. It was raising the bar to protect people within hospitals and doctors' offices…I don't remember honestly if they called it nanotechnology…it was basically microbial and bacterial contamination."
Cement Masons
  • "Really just this survey. I read the trade magazines…a lot of it is machinery…there is a lot of progress in that respect where they're inventing machines to help in production and make the company more money and just be more streamlined. I don't really know where exactly nanotechnology and construction, where they meet."
  • "About five years ago there was a group or a consortium out of Santa Clara that was involved with nanotechnology. Somehow, I was linked into this email and there was communication going back and forth…that is really my first knowledge of it. They were having meetings, I just didn't really understand what it was, and I didn't get too involved. It was more on the business side of things and how it could affect construction."
Electricians
  • "I think it was my OSHA 30 class. They briefly talked about it, particles that were unrecognizable or invisible to the eye. That was about a year-and